fructosestroop - gezonde voeding - het
geheim om af te vallen en een betere weerstand te krijgen
Deze pagina is verouderd - ontvang onze nieuwtjes per email
Fructose-Sweetened Drinks Increase
Nonfasting Triglycerides in Obese Adults
Obese people who drink fructose-sweetened
beverages with their meals have an increased rise of triglycerides following the meal,
according to new research from the Monell Center. Increased triglycerides after a
meal are known predictors of cardiovascular disease, says Monell Member and study
lead author Karen L. Teff, PhD, a metabolic physiologist. Our findings show that
fructose-sweetened beverages raise triglyceride levels in obese people, who already are at
risk for metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
Triglycerides are manufactured by the body from dietary fat and are the most common form
of fat transported in blood. Although normal levels of triglycerides are essential for
good health, high levels are associated with increased risk for atherosclerosis and other
predictors of cardiovascular disease. In the study, published online by the Journal of
Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Teff and her collaborators studied 17 obese men and
women. Each was admitted two times to the Clinical and Translational Research Center at
the University of Pennsylvania. On each admission, the subjects were given identical meals
and blood was collected from an intravenous catheter over a 24-hour period. The only
difference was the sweetener used in the beverages that accompanied the meals; beverages
were sweetened with glucose during one admission and with fructose during the other. Blood
triglyceride levels were higher when subjects drank fructose-sweetened beverages with
their meals compared to when they drank glucose-sweetened beverages. The total amount of
triglycerides over a 24-hour period was almost 200 percent higher when the subjects drank
fructose-sweetened beverages. Although fructose increased triglyceride levels in all of
the subjects, this effect was especially pronounced in insulin-resistant subjects, who
already had increased triglyceride levels. Insulin resistance is a pre-diabetic condition
often associated with obesity.
Fructose can cause even greater
elevations of triglyceride levels in obese insulin-resistant individuals, worsening their
metabolic profiles and further increasing their risk for diabetes and heart disease,
said Teff. Fructose and glucose are forms of sugar found in both table sugar (sucrose) and
high fructose corn syrup. Both fructose and glucose are present in lower concentrations in
many fruits and vegetables. Although fructose tastes much sweeter than either glucose or
sucrose, it typically is not used alone as a sweetener. Future work will seek to determine
how much fructose is needed to cause an increase of triglyceride levels when it is
combined with glucose in beverages. Additional studies will explore the metabolic and
health effects of long-term fructose intake. In addition to her appointment at Monell,
Teff serves as Associate Director for Translational Research at the Institute for
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. Also
contributing to the study were Peter Havel from the University of California, Davis and
his colleagues Kimber Stanhope, Nancy Keim, and Bethany Cummings; Sean Adams, Ryan Grant,
and Tamara Dunn from the USDA Western Human Nutrition Center; Joanne Grudziak from Monell;
and Raymond R. Townsend from the University of Pennsylvania.
Weer bewijs dat fructose-siroop
diabetes 2 aanjaagt
A new animal study may help explain why
diets high in the sugar fructose have been linked to insulin resistance, a precursor to
type 2 diabetes.
Big food blijft deze relatie ontkennen. Is
ook logisch want zit overal in en is stuk goedkoper dan suiker. Minister Klink heeft 10
miljoen euro uitgetrokken voor de aanpak van diabetes dus laten we hopen dat zijn
adviseurs dit lezen.....
Groot deel fructose-glucosesiroop
bevat kwik !
Almost half of tested samples of commercial
high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contained mercury, which was also found in nearly a third
of 55 popular brand-name food and beverage products where HFCS is the first- or
second-highest labeled ingredient, according to two new U.S. studies.
An EHO at the FDA conducted an
investigation of the chlor-alkali industry in 2004 and found mercury residue in all of the
mercury cell chlor-alkali products including caustic soda, chlorine, potassium hydroxide,
and hydrochloric acid. Mercury is widely accepted to be a neurotoxic heavy metal . The
American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended that minimizing any form of mercury
exposure is essential for optimal child health and nervous system development . Current
international food processing standards allow 1.0 Ķg mercury/g caustic soda [21,
22] and there is no standard for mercury in food grade hydrochloric acid. Both of these
chemicals may be used to make HFCS. Mercury contamination of food products as a
result of the use of mercury contaminated HFCS seems like a very real possibility.
With daily per capita consumption of HFCS in the US averaging about 50 grams and daily
mercury intakes from HFCS ranging up to 28 Ķg, this potential source of mercury may
exceed other major sources of mercury especially in high-end consumers of beverages
sweetened with HFCS. Food products that contain a significant amount of HFCS should be
tested for mercury contamination in the end product and the public should be informed of
any detections. Clearly, more research is needed to determine the extent of mercury
exposure in children from mercury contaminated HFCS in food products.
Fructose-stroop als zoetstof kan wel eens
de wolf in schaapskleren zijn voor miljoenen mensen die kampen met een onverklaarbaar
overgewicht, diabetes 2, nierproblemen of een vette lever.
Er komt steeds meer bewijs dat niet alleen
suiker maar juist fructose siroop de echte aanjager is van veel problemen. En met name
voor de kwetsbare groep: kinderen.
En het gaat uiteraard weer om centen. Mais
wordt in de VS zwaar gesubsidieerd dus een zoetstof gewonnen uit mais en met enzymen
bewerkt zodat de hoeveelheid fructose ten op zichte van de glucose toeneemt. Je lever kan
maar een bepaalde hoeveelheid fructose verwerken dus neem je naast fruit ook nog veel
vruchtensapjes, frisdrank met suiker (suiker is ook voor de helft fructose !) en produkten
die gezoet zijn met fructose-siroop dan kun je op termijn allerlei chronische problemen
met je lever, alvleesklier, nieren etc verwachten.
Teveel aan fructose wordt direct via de
lever in vet omgezet en zal dus ook effect hebben op de gezondheid van je hart en
Combineer je dit probleem met een tekort
aan omega 3 vetten (dus meer ontstekingen), geharde plantaardige vetten (transvetten),
smaakversterkers (eetlust verhogend) dan ben je gewoon een lopende tijdbom.
Ik zie fructose-siroop als een soort
alcohol voor kinderen omdat het de lever sloopt, voor overgewicht en diabetes 2 zorgt en
ook nog eens zeer verslavend is. We zijn verslaafd aan suikers, dit kan witte suiker zijn,
fructose zijn maar ook de snelle granen zijn die onze suikerspiegel de hele dag door
opjagen en leiden tot een uitgeputte alvleesklier (diabetes 2).
Eet dus wat je voorouders aten en vermijdt
Geharde plantaardige vetten
Kunstmatige zoetstoffen zoals aspartaam
Snelle granen zoals ontbijtgranen die veel
De auteur van het boek "The Sugar
Fix" ging eens terug naar de jaren zeventig om te kijken of we echt zoveel meer eten,
meer witte suiker gebruiken of minder bewegen. Dat bleek niet het geval, wel bleek er een
toename van gebruik van fructose van 30% te zijn geweest.
Voor mijzelf is overgewicht een combinatie
van verstoorde insulinewerking door voeding die de suikerspiegel opjaagt,
hormoonverstoringen door gebruik van chemicaliŽn in medicijnen, plastic, voeding en het
milieu, fructose-siroop, smaakversterkers en light produkten die eetlust verhogen en het
eten van te weinig goede vetten (omega 3). Doordat we teveel toxines binnenkrijgen zal het
lichaam ook vetweefsel nodig hebben om deze stoffen veilig op te slaan. Daarom is snel
afvallen met een crashdieet ook zo funest voor je gezondheid, er komen dan allerlei
toxines versneld vrij.
Eet voeding in zijn natuurlijke vorm,
fructose-siroop is zwaar geraffineerd. Zodra je stoffen gaat concentreren gaat het mis,
dit zie je bij medicijnen maar ook bij voedingsstoffen. Je lichaam kan grote concentraties
van een bepaalde stof uiteindelijk niet meer verwerken en je lever wordt zwaar overbelast.
En je lever is je filter en energie
fabriek. De meerderheid van mensen die ik spreek is dan ook moe, geen mens die denkt aan
zijn lever, want ze drinken toch geen alcohol. Houdt je lever gezond, teveel aan fructose,
chemicaliŽn en alcohol zijn de grootste slopers van dit belangrijke orgaan dat filtert,
energie levert, cholesterol regelt, enzymen voor je vertering aanmaakt en je eigen
biochemische fabriekje is. Wees er zuinig op.....
High Fructose Corn Syrup
Weer bewijs voor relatie
fructose-siroop en overgewicht
Het "zesde zintuig" van
de hersenen voor calorieŽn ontdekt
De hersenen kunnen de calorieŽn in de
voeding waarnemen, onafhankelijk van het smaakmechanisme. Onderzoekers hebben dit
ondervonden in studies bij muizen. Hun conclusie is dat het beloningssysteem van de
hersenen wordt ingeschakeld door dit "zesde zintuig" kan gevolgen hebben voor
het begrijpen van de oorzaken van obesitas. Bijvoorbeeld, de bevindingen suggereren waarom
high-fructose maÔssiroop, op grote schaal gebruikt als zoetstof in voedingsmiddelen,
kunnen bijdragen aan obesitas.
Ivan de Araujo en zijn collega's publiceren
hun bevindingen in de uitgave van 27 maart 2008 van het tijdschrift Neuron. In hun
experimenten werkten de onderzoekers met genetisch gemodificeerde muizen die
"zoet-blind" zijn gemaakt, ze ontbreken een belangrijk onderdeel van smaak
receptor cellen die de zoete smaak kunnen opsporen. De onderzoekers voerden dan
gedragstesten uit waarin ze normale muizen vergeleken met "zoet-blinde" muizen
om te zien of hun voorkeur uitging naar suiker of de zoetstof sucralose zonder calorieŽn.
In deze tests bleken de zoete-blinde muizen een voorkeur te hebben voor suikerwater dat
calorieŽn bevat, dat dus niet afhankelijk was van hun vermogen om te proeven, maar van de
In het analyseren van de hersenen van de
zoet-blinde muizen toonden de onderzoekers aan dat het "beloningscircuit" van de
dieren was ingeschakeld door de inname van calorieŽn, onafhankelijk van het smaakvermogen
van de dieren. Uit die analyse is gebleken dat het niveau van chemische dopamine van de
hersenen, waarvan bekend is dat het centraal staat in het activeren van het
beloningscircuit, verhoogd met de inname van calorieŽn. Ook elektrofysiologische studies
toonden aan dat neuronen in het voedselbelonende gebied, de zogenaamde nucleus accumbens,
werden geactiveerd door de inname van calorieŽn, onafhankelijk van smaak.
Significant, de onderzoekers ondervonden
dat een voorkeur voor sucrose boven sucralose pas wordt ontwikkeld na tien minuten van een
uur durende voedingssessie en dat neuronen in de beloningsregio ook reageerden met
dezelfde vertraging. "In het kort, we toonden aan dat dopamine-ventrale striatum
beloningssystemen, voordien geassocieerd met de opsporing en de toewijzing van de
beloningswaarde aan smakelijke verbindingen, reageren op de calorische waarde van sucrose
in de afwezigheid van smaak receptor signalering," concludeerde de onderzoekers.
"Dus deze trajecten van de hersenen beÔnvloeden niet uitsluitend de sensorisch
gerelateerde impact van voedingsmiddelen, maar kunnen ook functies vervullen die voorheen
niet geÔdentificeerd/niet gekend waren met de opsporing van maagdarm- en
stofwisselingssignalen," schreven ze.
De wetenschappelijke vragen die door de
ontdekking van het calorie-waarnemende systeem van de hersenen opduiken zijn uiterst
belangrijk voor het begrijpen van de pathogenie en sociologie van de menselijke
zwaarlijvigheid," schreven Zane Andrews en Tamas Horvath in een preview van het
artikel in hetzelfde nummer van Neuron. "Bijvoorbeeld, maÔssiroop (fructose-siroop)
hoog in fructose is een alomtegenwoordige zoetstof in de Amerikaanse samenleving, en er
zijn aanwijzingen dat fructose niet zo effectief is als sucrose in het beŽindigen van een
maaltijd. Het kan zijn dat fructose een sterkere activering van het beloningssysteem
teweegbrengt en dat het verwijderen van maÔssiroop hoog in fructose als zoetstof de zin
voor deze producten zal intomen. Naast deze huidige studie zal de wetenschappelijke
gemeenschap verder galvaniseren om te begrijpen hoe hoger cognitieve centra in de hersenen
de voedselinname controleren en het lichaamsgewicht regelen", schreven Andrews en
De onderzoekers zijn:
" Ivan E. de Araujo, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC;
" Albino J. Oliveira-Maia, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, Universidade
do Porto, Porto, Portugal;
" Tatyana D. Sotnikova, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC;
" Raul R. Gainetdinov, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC;
" Marc G. Caron, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC;
" Miguel A.L. Nicolelis, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC en
" Sidney A. Simon, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.
Fructose, but not dextrose, accelerates the
progression of chronic kidney disease
Michael S. Gersch,1,2 Wei Mu,1 Pietro
Cirillo,1 Sirirat Reungjui,1 Li Zhang,1 Carlos Roncal,1 Yuri Y. Sautin,1 Richard J.
Johnson,1 and Takahiko Nakagawa1
1Division of Nephrology, Dialysis, and Transplantation, University of Florida; and 2North
Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, Florida
The metabolic syndrome has recently been
recognized as a risk factor for kidney disease, but the mechanisms mediating this risk
remain unclear. High fructose consumption by animals produces a model of the metabolic
syndrome with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. The present study was
conducted to test the hypothesis that consumption of a high-fructose diet could accelerate
the progression of chronic kidney disease.
In conclusion, consumption of a
high-fructose diet greatly accelerates progression of chronic kidney disease in the rat
remnant kidney model.
Uncover the High Fructose Fall-Out That Is
Making You Fat and Sick. By identifying fructose as the main culprit in the American
obesity epidemic, this new diet will reduce the risk of a number of serious health
problems and take off those extra pounds In The Sugar Fix, Dr. Richard Johnson uses
results from his pioneering research on the link between a high-fructose diet and the
metabolic syndrome to connect the American obesity epidemic directly to a frightening
escalation in our fructose consumption.
It comes as no surprise that the sugar is
found in processed foods like candy, baked goods, canned foods, and frozen meals in the
form of high-fructose corn syrup, but it is also hidden in less obvious foods like peanut
butter, egg products, and soups. In fact, many fruits and vegetables contain high levels
of it naturally. Dr. Johnson shows how to dramatically cut back on the sweetener by making
His 2-week program features daily meal
plans containing less than 5 grams of fructose. After the 2-week start-up period, Dr.
Johnson shows readers how to limit long-term fructose intake to 25 grams per day,
one-quarter of the amount the average American now ingests. Rather than prescribing the
low-carb approach of so many recent diets, Dr. Johnson recommends a formula that is much
easier to enjoy and stick to: 55 percent carbs, 25 percent fat, and 20 percent protein.
The immediate benefit of this diet is to help anyone shed excess weight. The additional
benefits are even more impressive-reduced risk for serious health problems such as high
blood pressure, elevated blood fats, and insulin resistance. These conditions are directly
linked to heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease, and stroke.
RICHARD JOHNSON, MD, has been a practicing
physician and clinical scientist for more than a quarter of a century. Previously chief of
nephrology and director of renal transplantation at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston,
Dr. Johnson is now chief of nephrology, hypertension, and transplantation at the
University of Florida in Gainesville.
Referring to the three ways the body uses
glucose, assuming that blood glucose levels are adequate, the glucose will then be stored
as glycogen. Muscle does not have the necessary enzymes to synthesize fructose into
glycogen; therefore the liver converts this fructose into liver glycogen. It would only
take three, 8-ounce glasses of orange juice to fully replenish liver glycogen stores.
Since the liver is responsible for supplying energy to the entire body, once its stores
are full, a rate limiting enzyme in glucose metabolism, which is responsible for signaling
the body to store glucose as glycogen or convert it to fat (phosphofructokinase), signals
the body that all stores are full. If the glycogen stores are signaled as full, then the
third way our body uses excess glucose is to convert it to fatty acids and store as
adipose tissue. In essence, fruit sugar is easily converted to fat. Many may be
asking why then is fruit low on the glycemic index? If it does not cause a sudden release
of insulin, then how could it ever be a poor food choice? Once the fructose (fruit sugar)
enters the liver and liver glycogen is already full, then it cannot be used by the muscles
for glycogen or energy production. It is converted to fat and released back into the
bloodstream to be stored as adipose tissue. The low glycemic response is based on the fact
that fructose leaves the liver as fat, and fat does not raise insulin levels.
Studie - laag magnesium + hoge
fructose inname is verhoogde kans op ontstekingen en metabool syndroom
High fructose consumption combined with low
dietary magnesium intake may increase the incidence of the metabolic syndrome by inducing
inflammation.Rayssiguier Y, Gueux E, Nowacki
Magnes Res. 2006 Dec;19(4):237-43, W, Rock
E, Mazur A. INRA, Unitť de Nutrition Humaine, Clermont Ferrand/Theix, 63122
Saint-GenŤs-Champanelle, France. email@example.com
Since magnesium deficiency has a
pro-inflammatory effect, the expected consequence would be an increased risk of developing
insulin resistance when magnesium deficiency is combined with a high-fructose diet.
Accordingly, magnesium deficiency combined with a high-fructose diet induces insulin
resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, endothelial activation and prothrombic changes in
combination with the upregulation of markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Succesvol afvallen? Vermijdt dat 2
weken alle fructose in je dieet (dus ook fruit)......
Book: Fructose missing link in obesity epidemic
Could the simple sugar responsible for
putting the sweet in everything from bananas to root beer be the missing link in
understanding what puts the fat on a persons thighs? Yes, according to a book penned
by a University of Florida researcher that was published today. In his book, The
Sugar Fix: The High-Fructose Fallout That Is Making You Fat And Sick, Dr. Richard
Johnson reviews the increasing evidence that fructose may play a role in the obesity
epidemic and proposes a low-fructose diet he believes could help people lose weight and
potentially prevent diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
We recognize that obesity has
multiple causes, including eating too much and exercising too little, but we think a
missing piece of the obesity puzzle is fructose intake, said Johnson, the J. Robert
Cade professor of medicine and chief of the division of nephrology, hypertension and
transplantation in the UF College of Medicine. Its not fructose itself that is
the problem, but eating too much of it.
Americans consume nearly three times as
much fructose as a century ago, Johnson said. Although the major source of fructose is
soft drinks, its found in a variety of foods such as fruit, juice, sweetened cereals
We think fructose makes you obese not
simply by the calories it provides but because it also tricks hormonal systems that
control appetite, Johnson said. You dont get a sense of being full so
you keep eating. It (fructose) may also be important in the development of diabetes,
kidney disease and heart disease.
An additional problem is that the
more fructose you eat, the more sensitive you become to it, Johnson said. If
you want to have success losing weight, you have to cut out fructose for two weeks.
At that point you are no longer as sensitive and you can resume a low-fructose diet with
De Amerikaanse FDA heeft de
voedingsindustrie in Amerika op de kast gejaagd door te bepalen dat pordukten die HFCS
(fructose-glucosesiroop) bevatten natuurlijk zijn. Dit vanwege het feit dat dit maissiroop
dusdanig chemisch is veranderd dat het niet meer en natuurlijk produkt is.
En juist deze raffinage en hoge
concentratie zorgt ervoor dat het wel eens de belangrijkste aanjager kan zijn van
diabetes, vette lever en overgewicht. Combineer je deze stof met smaakversterkers en veel
koolhydraten dan heb je de winnende dikmaak combinatie en val je misschien ook in de
handen van de Noordhollandse Sonja Ontbijtkoek. Vermijden als de pest dus......
Toch relatie frisdrank
fructosesiroop en diabetes bij kinderen !!
Ik vervloek deze siroop die in veel
frisdranken, snoepgoed, broodbeleg, mayo/ketcchup en industrie produkten zit al bijna 3
jaar maar nu komen er dan toch harde bewijzen mbt de rol bij het ontwikkelen van oa
diabetes bij kinderen. Hopelijk gaat de overheid en het Voedingscentrum nu echt eens iets
doen aan de preventie van diabetes bij kinderen. Of betalen zij de prijs voor dit
industrievriendelijke clubje dat van belangenverstrengeling aan elkaar hangt en pas de put
dempt als de kalveren verdronken zijn ?
Patricia Schutte, niet alleen studies
noemen die de industrie gunstig uitkomen !
New evidence suggests that
sodas sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup may increase the risk of diabetes,
particularly in children.
BOSTON, Aug. 23, 2007
Researchers have found new evidence that soft drinks sweetened with high-fructose corn
syrup (HFCS) may contribute to the development of diabetes, particularly in children. In a
laboratory study of commonly consumed carbonated beverages, the scientists found that
drinks containing the syrup had high levels of reactive compounds that have been shown by
others to have the potential to trigger cell and tissue damage that could cause the
disease, which is at epidemic levels. They reported here today at the 234th national
meeting of the American Chemical Society.
HFCS is a sweetener found in many foods
and beverages, including non-diet soda pop, baked goods, and condiments. It is has become
the sweetener of choice for many food manufacturers because it is considered more
economical, sweeter and more easy to blend into beverages than table sugar. Some
researchers have suggested that high-fructose corn syrup may contribute to an increased
risk of diabetes as well as obesity, a claim which the food industry disputes. Until now,
little laboratory evidence has been available on the topic.
In the current study, Chi-Tang Ho,
Ph.D., conducted chemical tests among 11 different carbonated soft drinks containing HFCS.
He found astonishingly high levels of reactive carbonyls in those beverages.
These undesirable and highly-reactive compounds associated with unbound
fructose and glucose molecules are believed to cause tissue damage, says Ho, a professor
of food science at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, N.J. By contrast, reactive
carbonyls are not present in table sugar, whose fructose and glucose components are
bound and chemically stable, the researcher notes.
Reactive carbonyls also are elevated in
the blood of individuals with diabetes and linked to the complications of that disease.
Based on the study data, Ho estimates that a single can of soda contains about five times
the concentration of reactive carbonyls than the concentration found in the blood of an
adult person with diabetes. Ho and his associates also found that adding tea components to
drinks containing HFCS may help lower the levels of reactive carbonyls. The scientists
found that adding epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a compound in tea, significantly
reduced the levels of reactive carbonyl species in a dose-dependent manner when added to
the carbonated soft drinks studied. In some cases, the levels of reactive carbonyls were
reduced by half, the researchers say.
People consume too much
high-fructose corn syrup in this country, says Ho. Its in way too many
food and drink products and theres growing evidence that its bad for
you. The tea-derived supplement provides a promising way to counter its potentially
toxic effects, especially in children who consume a lot of carbonated beverages, he says.
But eliminating or reducing consumption of HFCS is preferable, the researchers note. They
are currently exploring the chemical mechanisms by which tea appears to neutralize the
reactivity of the syrup.
Hos group is also probing the
mechanisms by which carbonation increases the amount of reactive carbonyls formed in sodas
containing HFCS. They note that non-carbonated fruit juices containing HFCS have one-third
the amount of reactive carbonyl species found in carbonated sodas with HFCS, while
non-carbonated tea beverages containing high-fructose corn syrup, which already contain
EGCG, have only about one-sixth the levels of carbonyls found in regular soda.
In the future, food and drink
manufacturers could reduce concerns about HFCS by adding more EGCG, using less HFCS, or
replacing the syrup with alternatives such as regular table sugar, Ho and his associates
say. Funding for this study was provided by the Center for Advanced Food Technology of
Rutgers University. Other researchers involved in the study include Chih-Yu Lo, Ph.D.;
Shiming Li, Ph.D.; Di Tan, Ph.D.; and Yu Wang, a doctoral student.
Suikerrijke (fructose siroop)
drankjes zorgen voor vette lever en overgewicht
Dr. Ina Bergheim ( University of Hohenheim
in Duitsland) deed onderzoek naar suikerwater en het effect op de lever bij muizen. De
muizen die suikerwater dronken werden dikker en hadden meer kans op een vette lever, met
name wanneer er fructose suiker was gebruikt. Dr. Adrian Di Bisceglie van de St. Louis
University wijst erop dat vette lever een belangrijke oorzaak is van overgewicht en dat de
laatste decennia met name het gebruik van HFCS fructose suiker (fructose mais siroop)
gigantisch is toegenomen.
Rond 1970 kwamen
levensmiddelentechnologen op het sprankelende idee om de glucosestroop die je uit
maÔs kunt winnen, om te zetten in fructosestroop. Fructose is aanzienlijk zoeter
dan glucose, maÔs kost nauwelijks meer dan drinkwater en ook het chemische
omzettingsproces is spotgoedkoop. Sindsdien stroomt de High Fructose Corn Syrup als een
aanzwellende, taaie vloedgolf over de wereld. Het zit overal in. Vooral in non-voeding als
frisdrank, koek en repen, maar ook in minder verdachte waren als muesli, worst, soep,
mosterd en ketchup.
Wat goed is voor de aandeelhouders van Coca Cola en Unilever, is de dood in de pot voor
jou. Sinds kort weten we dat dit honingzoete lieverdje van de levensmiddelen designers de
lever verandert in een op hol geslagen vetfabriek. Van fructosestroop word moddervet en
het kan je suikerziekte en/of een hartinfarct bezorgen.
Potential role of sugar (fructose)
in the epidemic of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, kidney
disease, and cardiovascular disease
Richard J Johnson, Mark S Segal, Yuri
Sautin, Takahiko Nakagawa, Daniel I Feig, Duk-Hee Kang, Michael S Gersch, Steven Benner
and Laura G SŠnchez-Lozada
1 From the Division of Nephrology and Department of Medicine, University of Florida,
Gainesville, FL (RJJ, MSS, YS, TN, and MSG); the Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Texas
Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (DIF); the Division of
Nephrology, Ewha Woman's University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea (D-HK); the
Foundation for Applied Molecular Evolution, Gainesville, FL (SB); and the Instituto
Nacional de Cardiologia Ignacio Chavez, Mexico City, Mexico (LGS-L)
Currently, we are experiencing an epidemic of cardiorenal disease characterized by
increasing rates of obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and
kidney disease. Whereas excessive caloric intake and physical inactivity are likely
important factors driving the obesity epidemic, it is important to consider additional
mechanisms. We revisit an old hypothesis that sugar, particularly excessive fructose
intake, has a critical role in the epidemic of cardiorenal disease. We also present
evidence that the unique ability of fructose to induce an increase in uric acid may be a
major mechanism by which fructose can cause cardiorenal disease. Finally, we suggest that
high intakes of fructose in African Americans may explain their greater predisposition to
develop cardiorenal disease, and we provide a list of testable predictions to evaluate
Too Much Fructose Could Leave
Dieters Sugar Shocked
Dieters should focus on limiting the amount
of fructose they eat instead of cutting out starchy foods such as bread, rice and
potatoes, report the researchers, who propose using new dietary guidelines based on
fructose to gauge how healthy foods are.
Beverages Increases Body Adiposity in Mice
Exposure to fructose water increased
adiposity, whereas increased fat mass after consumption of soft drinks or diet soft drinks
did not reach statistical significance (n = 9 each group). Total intake of energy was
unaltered, because mice proportionally reduced their caloric intake from chow. There was a
trend toward reduced energy expenditure and increased respiratory quotient, albeit not
significant, in the fructose group. Furthermore, fructose produced a hepatic lipid
accumulation with a characteristic pericentral pattern.
Vorsicht Glukosesirup! Das
Glykoproteinsyndrom - Ursache vieler Krankheiten?
Glukosesirup wird wegen seiner milden
SŁŖe und vor allem seiner Klebrigkeit seit 40 Jahren von der Nahrungsmittelindustrie
verwendet. Ob KonfitŁre, Schokolade, Yoghurt, Eis er steckt fast
Łberall drin, selbst in Bio-Produkten. Nach den Erkenntnissen von Dr. med. Hartwig
Carstensen lšŖt sich darauf eine Vielzahl moderner Krankheiten von Allergien
Łber Rheuma und Morbus Crohn bis zur Schuppenflechte zurŁckfŁhren. Carstensen spricht
von einem Glykoproteinsyndrom und verspricht Heilung, sofern der
AuslŲser gemieden wird.
USA Today (Society for the Advancement of
Education), Oct, 2004
By coupling extensive Department of
Agriculture food consumption data and their own analyses with previous research,
nutritionists have concluded that high-fructose sweeteners made from corn are partially
responsible for the growing national obesity epidemic. Introduction of the
sweeteners, which are cheaper to produce and use in food manufacturing than cane and beet
sugars, correspond closely time-wise with the epidemic's start, the researchers claim.
Several other biological factors associated with high-fructose corn sweeteners appear to
boost their negative effects on Americans' waistlines as well.
"Body weights rose slowly for most of
the 20th century until the late 1980s," says George A. Bray, Boyd professor at the
Louisiana State University System's Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge.
"At that time, many countries showed a sudden increase in the rate at which obesity
has been galloping forward."
Until the 1970s most of the sugar we ate came from sucrose derived from sugar beets or
sugar cane. Then sugar from corncorn syrup, fructose, dextrose, dextrine and
especially high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)began to gain popularity as a sweetener
because it was much less expensive to produce. High fructose corn syrup can be manipulated
to contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose, or up to 80 percent fructose and 20
percent glucose.2 Thus, with almost twice the fructose, HFCS delivers a double danger
compared to sugar.
(With regards to fruit, the ratio is usually 50 percent glucose and 50 percent fructose,
but most commercial fruit juices have HFCS added. Fruit contains fiber which slows down
the metabolism of fructose and other sugars, but the fructose in HFCS is absorbed very
In 1980 the average person ate 39 pounds of fructose and 84 pounds of sucrose. In 1994 the
average person ate 66 pounds of sucrose and 83 pounds of fructose, providing 19 percent of
total caloric energy.3 Today approximately 25 percent of our average caloric intake comes
from sugars, with the larger fraction as fructose.4
High fructose corn syrup is extremely soluble and mixes well in many foods. It is cheap to
produce, sweet and easy to store. Its used in everything from bread to pasta sauces
to bacon to beer as well as in health products like protein bars and
High-Fructose Corn Syrup May Act More Like
Fat Than Sugar in the Body
Fructose is a different story. It
"appears to behave more like fat with respect to the hormones involved in body weight
regulation," explains Peter Havel, associate professor of nutrition at the University
of California, Davis. "Fructose doesn't stimulate insulin secretion. It doesn't
increase leptin production or suppress production of ghrelin. That suggests that consuming
a lot of fructose, like consuming too much fat, could contribute to weight gain."
Whether it actually does do this is not known "because the studies have not been
conducted," said Havel.
Another concern is the action of fructose
in the liver, where it is converted into the chemical backbone of trigylcerides more
efficiently than glucose. Like low-density lipoprotein -- the most damaging form of
cholesterol -- elevated levels of trigylcerides are linked to an increased risk of heart
disease. A University of Minnesota study published in the American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition in 2000 found that in men, but not in women, fructose "produced
significantly higher [blood] levels" than did glucose. The researchers, led by J.P
Bantle, concluded that "diets high in added fructose may be undesirable, particularly
The most striking evidence comes from recent animal studies. When rats fed a low-copper,
high fructose diet were compared with rats fed a low-copper diet high in complex
carbohydrates, the difference in longevity was enormous. "Rats normally live for a
good two years," explains Meira Fields, Ph.D., research chemist at the USDA in
Beltsville, Maryland. "But the rats in my study fed a high-fructose, low copper diets
are dying after 5 weeks." One of the few human studies of low-copper, high-fructose
diets was abruptly stopped when 4 of the 24 subjects developed heart-related
abnormalities, according to Fields.
High fructose diets have also been
implicated in the development of adult-onset diabetes. Fructose, especially when combined
with other sugars, reduces stores of chromium, a mineral essential for maintaining
balanced insulin levels, according to Richard Anderson, Ph.D., lead scientist at the Human
Nutrition Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland.
The consumption of fructose (corn syrup) has risen considerably in the general population
within recent years. In 1980 the average person ate 39 pounds of fructose and 84 pounds of
sucrose. In 1994 the average person ate 66 pounds of sucrose and 83 pounds of fructose.
This 149 pounds is approximately 19% of the average person's diet.
This increase is due to several factors.
There was a decreased use of cane and beet sugar (sucrose) in processed foods and a wide
spread use of corn syrup due because sugar manufacturers realized that corn was cheaper to
process into sugar than cane or beet. Cane sugar and beet sugar are made up of
approximately 50% glucose and 50% fructose.
Corn sweetener is approximately 20% glucose
and 80% fructose. Corn sweetener is absorbed only 40% as quickly as glucose and causes
only a modest rise in blood sugar. A few years ago the medical community revealed that
there was good news for diabetics. Many people had previously known that table sugar
(sucrose) was not a healthy food for diabetics because it raised their blood sugar levels
Since diabetics have a hard time
maintaining healthy blood sugar levels, doctors counseled diabetics not to eat sugar. The
new revelation was that diabetics could eat fructose because fructose did not raise their
blood sugar level extremely high. So far so good, but there is more.
Many doctors were recommending fructose
instead of glucose. Today fructose is not only being used by some diabetics but it is used
for a variety of foods, drinks and confectionery around the world. It is used for candies
for diabetics, desserts for weight watchers, drinks for the sportsman and jelly for the
health conscious. The medical community recommended it because of a low increase in
glucose in the blood. The scientists did not look at other factors in the body when a
person eats sugar. Let's look at some of these factors now. Fructose has no enzymes,
vitamins, and minerals and robs the body of its micronutrient treasures in order to
assimilate itself for physiological use. Fructose browns food more readily (Maillard
reaction) than with glucose. This may seem like a good idea, but it is not.
The Maillard reaction, a browning reaction,
happens with any sugar. With fructose it happens seven times faster with than glucose,
results in a decrease in protein quality and a toxicity of protein in the body. This is
due to the loss of amino acid residues and decreased protein digestibility. Maillard
products can inhibit the uptake and metabolism of free amino acids and other nutrients
such as zinc and some advanced Maillard products have mutagenic and/or carcinogenic
properties. The Maillard reactions between proteins and fructose, glucose, and other
sugars may play a role in aging and in some clinical complications of diabetes.
of HFCS products by health supermarkets Last week, Earth Fare, a chain of nine "healthy" supermarkets based
in Asheville, N.C., announced it would ban all products made with high fructose corn
syrup. "Over a third of our sodas and energy bars will have to be removed, some of
them best sellers," said Earth Fare Director of Purchasing David Bowles. "We
were the first chain to ban hydrogenated oils from our shelves, and now we set the
standard again, putting customer health before profit," added Earth Fare CEO and
President Michael Cianciarulo.
Data collected from a study of 51, 603 nurses in the United States found that women who
drank one serving of non-diet soda or fruit punch daily, which was sweetened with either
sugar or high-fructose corn syrup, gained more weight, an average of 10.3 pounds, than
women who drank less than one per month. The study was conducted over four years.
In addition, the sugar consumers had an 82%
increased risk of developing Type 2 diabetes, since high blood sugar puts a burden on the
pancreas to produce insulin. Men who drink these beverages would also be subject to the
same risks. If you find this article interesting, be sure to also read 'Breakthrough cure
for diabetes isn't so; news headlines mislead type 2 diabetics.'
Corn syrup is a syrup made from maize,
composed mainly of glucose. It is used to sweeten soft drinks, juices, ice cream, and many
other mass-produced foods. Its liquid form keeps foods moist and prevents them from
quickly spoiling. In many areas it is less expensive than sugar due to agricultural
policy, e.g. the United States subsidizes its production while taxing sugar imports.
A variety of corn syrup called high
fructose corn syrup is often used to cheaply improve the flavor of food. A portion of the
glucose in ordinary corn syrup is converted to fructose through the incubation with the
enzyme glucose isomerase. This process, invented by Japanese researchers in the 1970s,
increases the fructose content of corn syrup to 42%. Because fructose is a much sweeter
monosaccharide than glucose, the sweetness of the syrup increases relative to corn syrup.
Fructose is also more desirable than glucose as it increases in solubility at low
temperatures (so more can be concentrated per unit weight). Through further processing,
the fructose content can be increased to 55% (yielding a product that has the same
sweetness as sucrose) or any desired higher amount. Common commercial grades of high
fructose corn syrup include grades having 42%, 55%, or 90% fructose.
The cheapness and abundance of high
fructose corn syrup has generated opinions that the substance has a propensity to induce
Type II Diabetes. While this is generally accepted as true, it is misleading, because
"normal" table sugar (sucrose) is also widely implicated as a cause of diabetes.
Once ingested, sucrose is quickly converted to glucose and fructose by the enzyme
High fructose corn syrup can raise both
blood sugar and insulin levels. But it doesn't have the same impact as other forms of
carbohydrate such as glucose.
In other words, the calories in a soft
drink don't cause a feeling of fullness in the way that calories from food do, promoting a
higher calorie and sugar intake.
Although it's certainly one of the
culprits, high fructose corn syrup is not the only reason for the obesity epidemic. The
occasional soft drink won't make you fat or give you type II diabetes and heart disease.
An extra-large soda every day, however, is not a good idea.
Make sure to check the labels of other
foods you eat to make sure you're not getting a hidden dose of high fructose corn syrup.
You'll find it in soft drinks, ice cream and frozen desserts, especially the low-fat
Soft drink manufacturers have secret plans
to come up with a low-carb, low-fat, low-calorie, caffeine-free, additive-free cola.
Rumour has it they plan to call it water.
Another concern is the action of fructose
in the liver, where it is converted into the chemical backbone of triglycerides more
efficiently than glucose. Like low-density lipoprotein -- the most damaging form of
cholesterol -- elevated levels of triglycerides are linked to an increased risk of heart
disease. A University of Minnesota study published in the American Journal of Clinical
Nutrition in 2000 found that in men, but not in women, fructose "produced
significantly higher (blood) levels" than did glucose. The researchers concluded
"diets high in added fructose may be undesirable, particularly for men."
In November, Havel and his colleagues
published a review in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition that examined evidence
from multiple studies. They concluded that large quantities of fructose from a variety of
sources, including table sugar and high-fructose corn syrup, induce insulin resistance,
impair glucose tolerance, produce high levels of insulin, boost a dangerous type of fat in
the blood and cause high blood pressure in animals. "The data in humans are less
clear," the team noted.
Scientists find fructose may have a
University of Florida researchers have
identified one possible reason for rising obesity rates, and it all starts with fructose,
found in fruit, honey, table sugar and other sweeteners, and in many processed foods.
Fructose may trick you into thinking you
are hungrier than you should be, say the scientists, whose studies in animals have
revealed its role in a biochemical chain reaction that triggers weight gain and other
features of metabolic syndrome the main precursor to type 2 diabetes. In related
research, they also prevented rats from packing on the pounds by interrupting the way
their bodies processed this simple sugar, even when the animals continued to consume it.
The findings, reported in the December issue of Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology and in
this months online edition of the American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology,
add to growing evidence implicating fructose in the obesity epidemic and could influence
future dietary guidelines. UF researchers are now studying whether the same mechanism is
involved in people.
There may be more than just the
common concept that the reason a person gets fat is because they eat too many calories and
they dont do enough exercise, said Dr. Richard J. Johnson, the J. Robert Cade
professor of nephrology and chief of nephrology, hypertension and transplantation at
UFs College of Medicine. And although genetic predispositions are obviously
important, theres some major environmental force driving this process. Our data
suggest certain foods and, in particular, fructose, may actually speed the process for a
person to become obese.
Physical inactivity, increased caloric
intake and consumption of high-fat foods undoubtedly account for part of the problem,
Johnson said. But Americans are feasting on more fructose than ever. Its in soft
drinks, jellies, pastries, ketchup and table sugar, among other foods, and is the key
component in high fructose corn syrup, a sugar substitute introduced in the early 1970s.
Since then, fructose intake has soared more
than 30 percent, and the number of people with metabolic syndrome has more than doubled
worldwide, to more than 55 million in the United States alone, Johnson said. The
condition, characterized by insulin resistance, obesity and elevated triglyceride levels
in the blood, is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and hypertension.
If you feed fructose to animals they
rapidly become obese, with all features of the metabolic syndrome, so there is this strong
causal link, Johnson said, And a high-fructose intake has been shown to induce
certain features of the metabolic syndrome pretty rapidly in people.
Now UF research implicates a rise in uric
acid in the bloodstream that occurs after fructose is consumed, Johnson said. That
temporary spike blocks the action of insulin, which typically regulates how body cells use
and store sugar and other food nutrients for energy. If uric acid levels are frequently
elevated, over time features of metabolic syndrome may develop, including high blood
pressure, obesity and elevated blood cholesterol levels.
Researchers from UF and the Baylor College
of Medicine studied rats fed a high-fructose diet for 10 weeks. Compared with rats fed a
control diet, those on the high-fructose diet experienced a rise in uric acid in the
bloodstream and developed insulin resistance.
When we blocked or lowered uric acid,
we were able to largely prevent or reverse features of the metabolic syndrome,
Johnson said. We were able to significantly reduce weight gain, we were able to
significantly reduce the rise in the triglycerides in the blood, the insulin resistance
was less and the blood pressure fell.
UF researchers are now studying the uric
acid pathway in cell cultures in the laboratory, in animals and in people, and are also
eyeing it as a possible factor in the development of cardiovascular and kidney diseases
because of its effects on blood vessel responses. They are conducting a National
Institutes of Health-funded trial to determine if lowering uric acid in blacks with
hypertension improves blood pressure control and are collaborating with scientists at
Baylor to determine if lowering uric acid will reduce blood pressure in adolescents with
We cannot definitively state that
fructose is driving the obesity epidemic, said Johnson. But we can say that
there is evidence supporting the possibility that it could have a contributory role
if not a major role. I think in the next few years well have a better feel for
whether or not these pathways that can be shown in animals may be relevant to the human
Findings to date suggest certain sugar
carbohydrates are actually better than others, he added, because some do not activate the
uric acid pathway.
It may well be we dont need to
cut out carbohydrates but just certain types of carbohydrates, Johnson said.
So this may be an alternative to the Atkins type of approach, which cuts out
As scientists learn more about the pathway,
Johnson said, and as studies are completed in people, the findings may influence how to
make wise choices about the foods we eat.
With the caveat that people are
different from rodents in many ways, the link between urate levels, blood pressure
elevation and insulin resistance demonstrated in rats fed fructose is extremely
provocative, said Dr. Brian F. Mandell, vice chairman of medicine for education and
a professor of medicine at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western
Reserve University. Whether the fructose supplementation to the diet in the United
States is partially responsible for the epidemic of obesity remains to be
proven but this is an association which can be tested, and the work of Dr. Johnson
and his collaborators makes the evaluation of the fructose-metabolic link in people an
academic and public health imperative.
Kidney Risk May Rise With High
An increased rate of albuminuria was found
in people who reported drinking several sugary (nondiet) soft drinks daily, compared with
those who reported drinking one or fewer sugary soft drinks per day. Mounting evidence
linking high consumption of fructose to an increased risk of kidney disease could have
clinical implications for the treatment of high-risk patients.