zeewier en voeding


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Zeewier - glyconutrients


Zeewier

Zeewier wordt ook gebruikt als voedsel, al is het in Europa veel minder bekend dan in landen als Japan. Het kan als groente worden gegeten, maar ook worden gebruikt als decoratie. In sushi worden strookjes zeewier gebruikt om de verschillende rijst- en visingrediėnten bij elkaar te houden door een smalle strook om het hapje te wikkelen. Japanse zoutjes, een soort rijstcrackers of rijstzoutjes, worden vaak ook met wat zeewier bedekt om ze een pittige smaak te geven. Zeewier is rijk aan mineralen zoals jodium en calcium en spore-elementen. Afhankelijk van de soort bevat het tevens vitaminen als vitamine C en E. Bruin zeewier bevat ongeveer 5-10%, rood en groen zeewier ongeveer 10-30% eiwit. Een deel van zeewier wordt niet door het lichaam afgebroken en kan als voedingsvezel worden gezien.

http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeewier


Zeewier en toxines

Zeewier helpt ook radioactieve isotopen uit het lichaam te verwijderen. Het gebruik van minstens enkele malen per week van dit zeewier als condiment als ook als groente (zodat je ongeveer een halve kop er van binnenkrijgt) is noodzakelijk zodat er chelatering plaatsvindt. Dus, buiten de universele vervuiling en het leegvissen van onze visbestanden, zouden we rustig van onze vissen kunnen genieten!

http://www.westonaprice.org/envtoxins/troubledwaters_nl.html


Zeewier voor de schildklier

Rijke hoeveelheid jodium in zeegroente helpt tegen groei- en ontwikkelingsstoornis. Ook buiten de kring van veganisten en macrobioten staat zeewier steeds vaker op het menu. Een gezonde ontwikkeling, zeggen voedseldeskundigen.

http://voeding.web-log.nl/voeding/2006/05/zeewier_voor_de.html


Video - David Wolfe - Seaweeds & Glyconutrients

David Wolfe discusses the importance of natures original superfood: Sea Veggies, and Glyconutrients.

Mike


Irish seaweed

Their are many different types with different benefits but most contain iron, calcium, vitamin A,E,K, B-complex (B1,B2,B3,B5,B6,B12) & folic acid. Essential fatty acids, nucleic acids like RNA and DNA, phyto-chemicals as carotenoids. Rich in fiber and natural polysaccharides. This unique mixture of vitamins, minerals/trace elements, anti-oxidants and phyto-nutrients is not common in land plants.

http://www.irishseaweed.eu/


Seaweed nutritional value

Seaweed draws an extraordinary wealth of mineral elements from the sea that can account for up to 36% of its dry mass. The mineral macronutrients include sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine, sulfur and phosphorus; the micronutrients include iodine, iron, zinc, copper, selenium, molybdenum, fluoride, manganese, boron, nickel and cobalt. Seaweed has such a large proportion of iodine compared to dietary minimum requirements, that it is primarily known as a source of this nutrient. The highest iodine content is found in brown algae, with dry kelp ranging from 1500-8000 ppm (parts per million) and dry rockweed (Fucus) from 500-1000 ppm. In most instances, red and green algae have lower contents, about 100-300 ppm in dried seaweeds, but remain high in comparison to any land plants. Daily adult requirements, currently recommended at 150 µg/day, could be covered by very small quantities of seaweed. Just one gram of dried brown algae provides from 500-8,000 µg of iodine and even the green and red algae (such as the purple nori that is used in Japanese cuisine) provides 100-300 µg in a single gram.

http://www.itmonline.org/arts/seaweed.htm


Video - Weightloss and seaweed


Wakame seaweed and fat burning

New studies conducted at Hokkaido University have found that a compound in wakame known as fucoxanthin can help burn fatty tissue. Studies in mice have shown that fucoxanthin induces expression of the fat-burning protein UCP1 that accumulates in fat tissue around the internal organs. Expression of UCP1 protein was significantly increased in mice fed fucoxanthin. Wakame is also used in topical beauty treatments. In Oriental medicine it has been used for blood purification, intestinal strength, skin, hair, reproductive organs and menstrual regularity

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wakame


Video - Perspectives on Ocean Science: Survival in the Sea - Biochemical Warfare

How do seemingly harmless invertebrates and seaweeds defend themselves against predators? How do they ward off competitors for space and ... all » resources, or stop deadly infection by millions of marine microbes in seawater? Join Scripps Institutions' Melany Puglisi and find out the answer to these and other compelling questions about microbial pathogens in the marine environment Series: Perspectives on Ocean Science

http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-2001038891639835035


Marine seaweed can detoxify organic pollutants

Researchers have discovered that marine seaweeds have a remarkable and previously unknown capacity to detoxify serious organic pollutants such as TNT or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and they may therefore be able to play an important role in protecting the ecological health of marine life.The studies, conducted by scientists from the College of Engineering at Oregon State University and the Marine Science Center at Northeastern University, were presented today at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

The findings may have important implications for seafood safety, since some of the marine organisms most at risk from these toxins are marine invertebrates such as clams, shrimp, oysters or crab that tend to "bioaccumulate" them. One possibility, the researchers say, might be to plant appropriate seaweeds as a protective buffer around areas being used in aquaculture.

"We found that certain red seaweeds had an intrinsic ability to detoxify TNT that was 5-10 times faster than any known terrestrial plant," said Greg Rorrer, a professor of chemical engineering at OSU. "Marine seaweeds have a more efficient uptake mechanism than even terrestrial aquatic plants to at least neutralize organic pollutants."

The researchers call this process "phycoremediation," derived from phykos, a Greek word for seaweed. The studies, which are supported by the Office of Naval Research and the Oregon Sea Grant Program, are of particular interest in the case of trinitrotoluene, or TNT, because of unexploded bombs or military shells found in some places around the world's oceans. There is a general concern these shells could potentially corrode.

"It's important to know how corals, fisheries and plant life might respond to exposure to TNT or other toxins," Rorrer said. The study is looking at not just TNT, which is commonly found in munitions, but at polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzopyrene and other PAHs that are sometimes associated with the use of motorcraft or other causes. Ongoing studies found that marine seaweeds processed toxins to a much less harmful form, and in a way that did not appear to harm the seaweed. The biochemistry involved, they say, is similar to that found in many land organisms, but more powerful and effective. Until now, the capability of marine seaweeds to deal with these toxins had never before been demonstrated.

It's unclear yet whether similar plants can be identified, the researchers said, that will perform this function in terrestrial fresh waters, such as streams or lakes. These research outcomes should lead to the development of new bioremediation technologies that use seaweed in engineered systems to remove organic contaminants from the marine environment, the scientists said. Studies to create genetically engineered seaweeds that perform these functions even better are also promising, the researchers said.


Seaweed could make junk food healthier

Junk food could be made healthier by adding an extract of an exotic type of seaweed, say British scientists. The highly-fibrous seaweed extract, alginate, could be used to increase the fibre content of cakes, burgers and other types of food which usually contain large amounts of fat and a low degree of healthy nutrients, say the team.

Scientists at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne publish their findings in the academic journal Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, in a paper detailing alginate's many benefits to the body. They believe it will be a valuable weapon in the international battle against obesity, diabetes and heart disease and diseases such as bowel cancer. The research paper examines the properties of a brown-coloured seaweed called Lessonia and Laminaria, found in the Far East, South America and parts of Norway and Scotland. The seaweed is processed in the laboratory to produce the extract, alginate, a carbohydrate compound which is a tasteless and odourless off-white coloured powder.

The paper shows that alginate has been proved to strengthen mucus, the body's natural protection of the gut wall, can slow digestion down, and can slow the uptake of nutrients in the body. Moreover, alginate is high in fibre and has been proved to be palatable and safe, and as such is already in widespread use by the food industry as a gelling agent, to reconstitute powdered foods, and to thicken the frothy head of premium lagers.

Studies have shown that eating high-fibre diets can help reduce the incidence of diseases such as bowel cancer. Good sources of fibre are fruit and vegetables, brown bread and cereals like bran flakes. One of the research team, Professor Jeff Pearson, of Newcastle University's Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, said: "We're just not eating enough fibre, yet we need this to keep us healthy. The problem is that a lot of people don't enjoy many of the foods that are high in fibre, like fruit and vegetables, yet to consume the recommended daily amount of fibre they would have to eat a lot of these types of foods.

"We believe it's hard to change people's habits and that the most practical solution is to improve the food they do eat. With a burger, for example, you would simply remove some of the fat and replace it with the seaweed extract, which is an entirely natural product from a sustainable resource. You'd have a healthier burger and it's unlikely to taste any different. "This compound can also be added to any number of foods, such as synthetic creams and yoghurts. With pork pies, one of my favourite foods, it could replace the gelatine which usually covers the meat, as the seaweed extract has gelling properties too." Prof Pearson, who has already made loaves of bread containing the seaweed extract which passed the taste test with colleagues, added: "Bread is probably the best vehicle to reach the general population because most people eat it. Adding the seaweed extract could quadruple the amount of fibre in white bread."


New study finds kelp can reduce level of hormone related to breast cancer risk

Berkeley -- A type of vegetation that can often be found washed ashore on beaches may soon emerge as a new player in the field of cancer-fighting foods. A new study led by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, has found that a diet containing kelp seaweed lowered levels of the potent sex hormone estradiol in rats, and raised hopes that it might decrease the risk of estrogen-dependent diseases such as breast cancer in humans. "This study opens up a new avenue for research leading to cancer preventive agents," said Martyn Smith, UC Berkeley professor of environmental health sciences and co-author of the study. "Kelp is a little studied nutrient, but there's good reason to look at it more closely." Prior studies have shown that Japanese women have longer menstrual cycles and lower serum estradiol levels than their Western counterparts, which researchers say may contribute to their lower rates of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. Scientists have been searching Asian diets for clues to the lower rates of cancer, with the lion's share of attention being given to soy.

"Brown kelp seaweed makes up more than 10 percent of the Japanese diet," said Christine Skibola, assistant research toxicologist at UC Berkeley's School of Public Health and lead author of the study. "Soy has gotten most of the attention, but our study suggests that kelp may also contribute to these reduced cancer rates among Japanese women." The researchers say that the type of kelp used in this study, bladderwrack seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus), is closely related to wakame and kombu, the brown seaweeds that are most commonly consumed in Japan. Bladderwrack seaweed is the primary form of kelp sold in the United States. They say these study results support the need for more research on wakame and kombu. Skibola said she began the animal study after obtaining encouraging results from earlier case studies of women with highly irregular menstrual cycles.

"The most profound thing I found was that two women with endometriosis and a lot of menstrual irregularities experienced significant improvement in their symptoms after three months of taking 700 milligrams of seaweed capsules per day," said Skibola. "It reduced much of the pain associated with endometriosis and significantly lengthened the total number of days of their menstrual cycles. In one of these women with high estrogen levels, I also saw a drop in blood estradiol levels from 600 picograms per milliliter down to 90 picograms per milliliter after she included kelp in her diet. That led me to believe it was worth doing further controlled studies on kelp."

For the new study, the researchers randomly divided 24 female rats into three groups. One group was fed a high daily dose of 70 milligrams of dried, powdered kelp for four weeks, while a second group was fed a low daily dose of 35 milligrams. Both groups were compared with a third control group of rats that did not receive kelp. To ensure that all the kelp was eaten, Skibola and study co-author John Curry, a UC Berkeley post-doctoral fellow in molecular and cell biology, sprinkled the powdered kelp onto apple wedges, one of the rats' favorite foods. The researchers said the experimental doses of kelp consumed by the rats were roughly equivalent to the amount of brown seaweed eaten by people in Japan.

Skibola and Curry took on the task of taking daily vaginal swabs to monitor the rats' menstrual cycles. The researchers found that the rats' estrous cycles increased from an average of 4.3 to 5.4 days for the low dose kelp group, and to 5.9 days for the high dose kelp group. Overall, dietary kelp resulted in a 37 percent increase in the length of the rat estrous cycle. Studies in humans have linked longer menstrual cycle lengths to lower risk of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. "If you have longer cycles, you actually have fewer periods over a lifetime, which means less time is spent overall in the phases where hormone levels and breast and endometrial cell proliferation are at their highest," said Skibola. During the early part of a woman's menstrual cycle, estradiol levels remain relatively constant. Almost halfway through the cycle, estradiol levels surge, peaking just before ovulation. These cyclic periods of high estrogen, which continues over a span of about 40 years from puberty to menopause, stimulates the division of breast cells that already have DNA mutations, as well as increases the chances of developing new mutations, factors that may increase one's risk of breast cancer.

To test the impact of dietary kelp on estradiol levels, researchers took baseline blood samples from 19 rats immediately before their low dose diet of kelp began. After just two weeks of eating 35 milligrams a day, estradiol levels were reduced from an average of 48.9 nanograms per liter to 40.2 nanograms per liter. After four weeks, estradiol levels dropped further to 36.7 nanograms per liter. In a separate test of human ovarian cell cultures, conducted in collaboration with colleagues at UC Davis, dosing with kelp extract led to a 23 to 35 percent decrease in estradiol levels.

"One possibility is that the kelp may be acting as an estrogen antagonist by preventing estradiol from binding with its estrogen receptors," said Skibola. "Our next step is to try to isolate the active compound in kelp that is having this hormone-modulating effect."

She noted that seaweed contains several complex compounds, including polyphenols that are considered antioxidants. Kelp supplements are available in health food stores since they are taken as a source of iodine by people with thyroid conditions. However, the researchers caution against a run on kelp because of these early results, particularly because kelp can accumulate heavy metals. "People should be careful about excessive kelp intake," said Skibola. "The high levels of iodine and the low levels of heavy metals contained in kelp means that it's not recommended for people who are pregnant, nursing, or who have hyperthyroid conditions." The researchers say they are working to isolate the active compounds in kelp that affect estradiol levels to avoid the possible toxicity of the iodine and metals. They say there is hope that kelp could eventually be used as an anti-estrogen in the treatment of hormone-dependent cancers if further tests demonstrate its effectiveness in humans. "It's a study that points to the need for more studies," said Smith, the study co-author. "But this certainly suggests that there are other elements of the Asian diet beyond soy that should be explored." Other study co-authors are Catherine VandeVoort, a UC Davis associate adjunct professor at the California National Primate Research Center, and Alan Conley, UC Davis associate professor of veterinary medicine.


Chemicals in brown algae may protect against skin cancer

Substances extracted from a marine seaweed may protect against skin cancer caused by too much sun, new research suggests. The animal study indicates that chemicals called brown algae polyphenols (BAPs), which are found in a type of brown marine seaweed, might protect against skin cancers caused by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation.

UVB radiation in sunlight is thought responsible for 90 percent of the estimated 1.3 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer diagnosed in the United States annually. Researchers applied the BAPs to the skin of hairless mice and fed it to the animals in their diet. In both cases, the substances reduced the number of skin tumors by up to 60 percent and their size by up to 43 percent. They also reduced inflammation. The study, led by researchers at the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, is published in the Dec. 15 issue of the International Journal of Cancer. "These compounds seemed to be dramatically effective at fairly low doses both orally and topically," says principal investigator Gary D. Stoner, professor emeritus of internal medicine and a cancer chemoprevention researcher.

"These findings suggest that, even when eaten, these compounds get to skin cells and neutralize the cancer-causing oxygen radicals that are produced by UV exposure." Laboratory research has shown that BAPs are strong antioxidants and may have anticancer properties. For this study, Stoner and his collaborators used a strain of hairless mice that are particularly susceptible to UVB-induced skin cancer. Nine experimental groups were used, each with 20 mice. In two groups, BAPs were applied to the skin in concentrations of 3 milligrams or 6 milligrams in a mild solvent. In two other groups, BAPs made up 0.1 percent or 0.5 percent of the diet. A group of untreated control mice was also exposed to UVB. The remaining groups were additional controls: Two were fed the standard diet with and without UV exposure, and two had the BAP solvent applied to the skin with and without UV exposure. The mice received the BAPs for two weeks before UVB exposure began, followed by 24 weeks of increasing UVB exposure according to a standardized schedule. The researchers then counted the number of tumors in the treatment and control groups and calculated their size.

Animals exposed only to UVB developed an average of 8.5 skin tumors. The animals fed the lower and the higher dose of BAPs developed an average of 4.7 and 3.7 tumors respectively. Of those given the topical treatment, the lower and higher doses developed 3.4 and 4.6 tumors respectively. In terms of tumor volume, the animals fed BAPs at the lower and higher doses had tumors that were 34 percent and 40 percent smaller than those in animals exposed to UVB alone. Of those given the topical treatment, the lower and higher dose animals had tumors that were 27 percent to 43 percent smaller than animals exposed to UVB alone. In addition, the researchers compared the groups for skin levels of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and of the hormone-like substance prostaglandin E2, both of which are strong indicators of inflammation, and for cell proliferation rates. Animals treated with BAPs showed lower levels of both COX-2 and prostaglandin E2.

The researchers found that the dietary BAPs reduced COX-2 activity by 74-82 percent, and that the topical BAPs reduced it by 66-82 percent. They also measured lower rates of cell proliferation in BAP-treated animals. "Both the oral and topical BAP treatment reduced COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 cell proliferation levels in the skin," Stoner says, "which corresponds with fewer tumors and small tumors in the treated animals."


 

 


 


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