Walnoten en voeding


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Walnoten (Junglans Regia)


walnoot.jpg (28833 bytes) Ik ben een echte liefhebber van goede noten zoals de walnoot die naast eiwitten en onverzadigde vetten een goede bron van vitamine B, vitamine E en foliumzuur is. Walnootolie reinigt de lymfe en is zenuwsterkend.

Walnootolie bevat de vitaminen A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 en C en de mineralen calcium, zwavel, fosfor, chloor, koper, ijzer, magnesium, natrium en zink en is met name interessant voor mensen die veel met hun hoofd werken.

Wel grappig feit is dat de gepelde noot op de hersenen lijkt, een kleine hint
van de natuur misschien? De olie ondersteunt belangrijke hersenfuncties ondersteunt en kan aderontstekingen voorkomen. Bevat ook nog Alfa-linoleenzuur.

Hieronder wat meer informatie over de walnoot en een overzicht van wetenschappelijke publicaties. Ook een Amerikaaans persbericht over het feit dat walnoten veel melatonine bevatten, deze stof kan schade voorkomen aan je cellen. Vrouwen die 's nachts werken maken zelf minder
van deze stof aan en lopen daarom meer kans op borstkanker.

Ron


De Okkernoot (Juglans regia), ook wel Walnoot, Gewone walnoot of Persische walnoot genoemd, wordt al vele eeuwen geplant vanwege de grote economische waarde van het hout en de goed smakende noten. Deze boom is inheems in Zuid-Europa op de Balkan, Zuidwest- en Centraal-Azië tot de Himalaya en in Zuidwest-China. In Amerika wordt de boom ook wel "English Walnut" genoemd.

In de Griekse mythologie wordt Carya door de God Dionysos in een walnotenboom veranderd. De notenboom staat daarom voor het symbool van de wijsheid. Karyatiden zijn vrouwenbeelden van notenhout in de vorm van kolommen van de tempel van Arthemis Karyatis. Onder het Christendom werd de okkernoot een boom van de duivel en symboliseerde macht en wellust. Men geloofde dat je ernstig ziek kon worden als je onder de boom in slaap viel.

De boom kan een hoogte van 20 m of meer bereiken en kan meer dan 10 m breed worden. De boom vormt een ronde half open kroon en bij het ouder worden krijgt de grijze stam een diep gegroefde bast. De boom bloeit in mei en kan bij lage temperatuur vorstschade aan de bloemen oplopen, waardoor vruchtzetting uitblijft.

Bron: Wikipedia


International


Walnuts contain melatonin, research shows

The next time you reach for salad greens and dressing, you might consider adding some walnuts. New research out of The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio shows that walnuts contain a fair amount of melatonin, a hormone that protects our cells against oxidative damage.

"Relatively few foods have been examined for their melatonin content," said Russel Reiter, Ph.D., professor of cellular and structural biology at the Health Science Center. "Our studies demonstrate that walnuts contain melatonin, that it is absorbed when it is eaten, and that it improves our ability to resist oxidative stress caused by toxic molecules called free radicals."

The research is reported in the September issue of the journal Nutrition.

Many diseases of aging, including cataracts, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, have a free-radical component, Dr. Reiter said. A primary theory of aging states that aging and its associated degenerative changes are consequences of free-radical damage. Melatonin acts like a cellular "Pac-Man" gobbling up free radicals before they can cause harm.

"Melatonin is found in all vertebrates and invertebrates, even in algae, slime molds and bacteria," Dr. Reiter said. "In 1995, a couple of publications appeared showing that it also is present in plants. So, we not only produce it in our bodies, but we eat it in our diets." Walnuts also contain large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to inhibit certain types of cancer and to be heart healthy. Melatonin also has been shown to inhibit certain types of cancer. "Maybe these two ingredients complement each other," Dr. Reiter said. He plans an upcoming study to explore this synergistic effect.

Melatonin was first described in corn, tomatoes and potatoes, which have very little of it. Walnuts are a different story. "How many walnuts would you have to eat a day to benefit in terms of their melatonin content? We really don't know," Dr. Reiter said. "The bottom line is, now we know that walnuts have another ingredient that is healthy, namely, melatonin."

Eating a good, nutritious diet containing a variety of nutrient-rich foods is undoubtedly better than trying to get those beneficial ingredients from supplements. "It's the package deal," Dr. Reiter said. "In walnuts it's not only the melatonin that is healthy, but the other ingredients. It's really the composite of the nut that makes it healthy, not one ingredient."

Melatonin is perhaps more famous as a sleep aid. The pineal gland in the brain secretes a little of it during the day and more at night. The nighttime rise is most important. As we get older, our nighttime melatonin levels wane, often wreaking havoc on regular sleep patterns.

Free-radical damage increases as we age, while melatonin decreases. "I'm not going to suggest that if we boost our melatonin level we can defer age-related conditions," Dr. Reiter said. "But it is worth asking this question: Is the loss of melatonin, an important anti-oxidant, of any consequence in terms of us developing free-radical-related diseases? In the lab, we can use pure melatonin to forestall a lot of free-radical damage."

For example, adding melatonin to the diet of newborn rats that are susceptible to cataracts prevents cataracts from forming, he observed.

The finding that walnuts contain melatonin is important. "We don't know the half of it yet," Dr. Reiter said.


Beneficial Effects of Alpha-Linolenic Acid in Walnuts Discussed By Leading Researchers

The recently-announced USDA dietary guidelines stress the need for consumers to be more aware of the benefits of polyunsaturated essential omega-3 fatty acids in order to achieve a healthy diet. Many people look to fish, such as salmon, for omega-3s, but plant sources such as walnuts are also specifically noted in the USDA recommendations. The type of omega-3s found in walnuts, and other plant sources such as flaxseed and dark leafy field greens, are different from the type of omega-3s found in fish. However, according to Penny Kris-Etherton, Ph.D., Distinguished Professor of Nutrition at The Pennsylvania State University, "The omega-3 fatty acids from plants have many similar benefits to those found in fish."

The American Heart Association recommends eating fish at least two times a week. However, according to the National Marine Fisheries Service, most Americans consume only about one serving of fish per week. "Obviously, Americans are not getting enough omega-3s from fish sources alone. Thus, an additional intake of omega-3 fatty acids from plant sources such as walnuts is important for heart health," says Frank Hu, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health.

Plant sources provide an omega-3 fatty acid called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which the body converts to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and some to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) - both found in fish. ALA and linoleic acid (LA) - an omega-6 fatty acid - are the only true "essential" fatty acids. "Marine source omega-3s are not essential because the body can create them from the plant source variety," Dr. Kris-Etherton explains.

Some say the conversion need means it takes more plant source omega-3s to be absorbed by and to be equally effective in the body. However, Dr. Kris-Etherton points out that, "Emerging research is showing that the effects of plant sources are similar and independently beneficial in comparison to marine sources. Omega-3 fatty acids have numerous physiologic benefits, including potent cardioprotective effects. These effects have been demonstrated for ALA as well as EPA and DHA."

Dr. Kris-Etherton refers to her recently published clinical study which shows that the ALA found in walnuts reduces C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation (Journal of Nutrition, November 2004). Similar findings were observed in a recent epidemiologic study reported by Dr. Hu and colleagues at Harvard. In this study, the intake of ALA was inversely related to C-reactive protein, a finding that was similar to that observed for fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Additionally, a recent study conducted by Dr. Sheila G. West and associates at The Pennsylvania State University found that the meals containing plant- and fish-derived omega-3 fatty acids (ALA compared with EPA + DHA) improved blood vessel function similarly.

High in antioxidants and proven heart-healthy in clinical studies, walnuts are also the most versatile and palatable of the plant sources of omega-3s, which show benefits for many health concerns.


Good Fats Decrease Multiple Heart Disease Risk Factors

University Park, Pa. -- A Penn State study has shown that a diet rich in alpha-linolenic acid from walnuts, walnut oil and flaxseed oil not only lowered bad cholesterol but also decreased markers for blood vessel inflammation in men and women representative of typical Americans at cardiovascular risk.

While previous studies have shown that walnut supplementation favorably affects cholesterol and other lipids that are signs of cardiovascular risk, this new study is the first to demonstrate that a diet high in walnuts decreases C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation strongly associated with heart disease.

Dr. Penny Kris-Etherton, distinguished professor of nutrition who led the study, says, "In a heart healthy diet, you need different unsaturated fatty acids that come from a variety of vegetable sources. Walnuts are a good source of two essential unsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid. They are a source of dietary fiber and a small amount of plant protein and other important vitamins and minerals. This research shows that walnuts, with their unique nutrient profile, can play a role in reducing cardiovascular risk factors as part of eating plans that also control saturated fat, trans fat, dietary cholesterol and calories."

The study is detailed in a paper, "Dietary Alpha-Linolenic Acid Reduces Inflammatory and Lipid Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women," in the current issue of the Journal of Nutrition. The authors are Guixiang Zhao, former doctoral student in nutritional sciences at Penn State; Dr. Terry D. Etherton, distinguished professor and head of the Department of Dairy and Animal Sciences; Dr. Keith R. Martin, assistant professor of nutritional sciences; Dr. Sheila G. West, assistant professor of biobehavioral health; Dr. Peter J. Gillies, director, Health Science Strategy, DuPont Haskell Laboratory for Health and Environmental Sciences, DuPont; and Kris-Etherton.

The study included 20 men and 3 women, average age about 50, who were overweight, had moderately elevated cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and were representative of individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease. On average their total cholesterol was 225, LDL cholesterol 154, HDL cholesterol 45 and triglycerides 137 mg/dl.

The participants ate three experimental diets that provided about 35 percent of total calories as fat. One diet approximated the average American diet (AAD). Another, the linoleic acid (LA) diet, included an ounce of walnuts and a tablespoon of walnut oil that provided about 12.6 percent of calories from linoleic acid and 3.6 percent of calories from alpha-linolenic acid. The third, the alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) diet, included the walnuts and walnut oil as well as a teaspoon of flaxseed oil to boost the content of alpha-linolenic acid. The fat content was 10.5 percent of calories from linoleic acid and 6.5 percent from alpha-linolenic acid.

The participants consumed each diet for six weeks. Then they took a two-week break before beginning the next diet. At the end of each 6-week diet period, they provided blood samples so that their cardiovascular risk factors could be monitored.

Compared to the average American diet, both the LA and the ALA diets lowered total cholesterol about 11 percent, LDLs about 11 or 12 percent and triglycerides about 18 percent. After six weeks on the diet, CRP declined after both the LA and ALA diets but more so on the ALA diet. Some participants had a dramatic reduction in CRP.

Kris-Etherton notes, "It will be important to determine whether there is a genetic basis for this different CRP response. "


Walnuts Protective for People with Type 2 Diabetes

Eating walnuts as part of one's overall diet has been trumpeted again for people developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - this time with a study published in the July issue of the Journal of the American Dietetic Association.

The study follows another report published late last year in the international journal, Diabetes Care, which highlighted the importance of eating a handful of walnuts a day. Walnuts are rich in polyunsaturated fats, Omega oils and vitamins.

PhD student, Ms Lynda Gillen, from the Smart Foods Centre at the University of Wollongong, was the lead author of the latest research paper in the Journal of the American Dietetic Association (JADA). The paper is on line at www.eatright.org (then click on the link to ADA Journal) and is titled "Structured Dietary Advice Incorporating Walnuts Achieves Optimal Fat and Energy Balance in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus". Her paper concluded that clinicians and dietitians should be advising people to include walnuts as part of their total diet.

"This will help achieve optimal fat intake proportions without adverse effects on total fat or energy intakes in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus," Ms Gillen said.

Ms Gillen said the intake of 30 grams of walnuts a day in conjunction with 350g of oily fish a week enabled achievement of recommendations on the type of fat in an energy-controlled diet for the management of diabetes.

"In this way, individuals consuming walnuts were more likely to achieve a beneficial fat profile than those consuming a larger quantity of oily fish (500g/wk) or those following standard 'low fat' advice," she said.

The walnut group used in the study achieved targeted fat proportions earlier (at three months) than the other two dietary intervention groups and maintained them for longer (at six months). It was clear that the combination of walnuts and oily fish were more effective and more sustainable than a larger intake of fish alone," Ms Gillen said.

She said that after six months, those in the walnut group were consuming almost half their dietary fat intake from polyunsaturated fat-rich foods, with walnuts providing almost one third of total fat intake and one half omega-3 polyunsaturated fat intake. However, in contrast, the low fat advice group continued to consume foods rich in saturated fat as the main sources of fat in the diet.

"Achievement of energy balance despite increased intakes of high fat foods is an important finding in terms of weight management in diabetes," Ms Gillen said.

The Director of the National Centre of Excellence in Functional Foods, University of Wollongong, Professor Linda Tapsell said this was an excellent study from Ms Gillen's PhD thesis that demonstrates the dietetics behind clinical trials on the effects of individual foods. "It is one thing to talk about the clinical results, but it is useful for practitioners and consumers to understand how to get there with particular eating patterns," Professor Tapsell said. Professor Tapsell was co-author of the paper along with Postdoctoral Fellows Alice Owen and Marijka Batterham and PhD student Craig Patch.


New Study Shows Unique Composition of Walnuts Improves Endothelial Function

Published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, the study concludes that the results provide further support for the inclusion of walnuts in healthy diets. “This is the first time a whole food, not its isolated components, has shown this beneficial effect on vascular health,” according to Emilio Ros, M.D., the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, researcher who directed the study. Dr. Ros notes, “Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the walnut diet increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation by 64 percent and reduced levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by 20 percent. In addition, as in previous studies, the walnut diet decreased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.”

Dr. Ros cites the powerful nutrient profile of walnuts as providing this capacity to improve vascular elasticity. Specifically, he notes that, “Walnuts differ from all other nuts because of their high content of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), a plant-based omega-3 fatty acid, which may provide additional anti-atherogenic properties.” He also references the amino acid L-arginine, and the gamma-tocopherol form of vitamin-E, both of which walnuts are rich in, as effective in preventing harmful vascular blockage.

“To put it simply, a healthy artery is like an elastic rubber pipe that allows changes in flow, while an artery with impaired endothelial function is like a rigid lead pipe that has a constant flow. The walnut diet in this study actually restored the elasticity of the artery, allowing increased blood flow on demand,” explains Dr. Ros. “Anyone who has risk factors for heart disease, such as smoking, high blood cholesterol, diabetes, hypertension or obesity, is in a situation where the arteries do not dilate properly when they need to. That's what is called endothelial dysfunction. The patients in our study had high blood cholesterol, a known cause of endothelial dysfunction, and this abnormality was corrected by the walnut diet. The encouraging results of this study provide physicians and patients with a powerful, yet simple, nutritional tool in their fight against heart disease,” he says.

Conducted by the Lipid Clinic at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, the study is entitled, “A walnut diet improves endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects: a randomized crossover trial.” 21 men and women (ages 25-75) with high cholesterol followed a cholesterol-lowering Mediteranean diet, and a diet of similar energy and fat content in which approximately 1.4-2.3 ounces of walnuts daily (equivalent to 40-65 grams or 8-13 walnuts), based on subjects’ total caloric intake, replaced roughly 32 percent of the energy from monounsaturated fat. Participants followed each diet for four weeks.

(To view the abstract)


Wetenschappelijke studies

Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain?

Researchers: Sabate J, Cordero-Macintyre Z, Siapco G, Torabian S, Haddad E. Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA

Studies consistently show the beneficial effects of eating nuts, but as high-energy foods, their regular consumption may lead to weight gain. We tested if daily consumption of walnuts (approximately 12 % energy intake) for 6 months would modify body weight and body composition in free-living subjects. The weight gain from incorporating walnuts into the diet (control-->walnut sequence) was less than the weight loss from withdrawing walnuts from the diet (walnut-->control sequence). Our findings show that regular walnut intake resulted in weight gain much lower than expected and which became non-significant after controlling for differences in energy intake.

Publication Types: Randomized Controlled Trial
Bron: J Nutr. 2005 Nov;94(5):859-64


Walnut consumption in hyperlipidemic patients.

Researchers: Zibaeenezhad MJ, Shamsnia SJ, Khorasani M.
Cardiovascular Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Walnut (Juglans regia L.) is described as an anticancer, tonic, blood purifier, and detoxifier agent. It is said that nuts have favorable fatty acids and nutrients. This study was performed to determine the lipid-lowering properties of walnut in a population in Shiraz, Southern Iran. In a randomized case-control study, 52 volunteers were divided into 2 groups: Group A consumed walnuts, 20 grams per day for 8 weeks and the control group (group B) consumed no walnuts. Triglycerides, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels were checked for each subject prior to, after 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks after the beginning of the study. In group A, the mean plasma TG level dropped by 17.1% from the baseline and HDL cholesterol also increased significantly by 9%. It was shown that frequent consumption of nuts in the daily diet was associated with a potentially decreased risk of coronary artery disease by decreasing the level of triglyceride and increasing the level of HDL.

Publication Types:  Clinical Trial , Randomized Controlled Trial
Bron: Angiology. 2005 Sep-Oct;56(5):581-3. Related Articles, Links


Structured dietary advice incorporating walnuts achieves optimal fat and energy balance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Researchers: Gillen LJ, Tapsell LC, Patch CS, Owen A, Batterham M.
Smart Foods Centre, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia

Specific advice for the regular inclusion of walnuts in the context of the total diet helps achieve optimal fat intake proportions without adverse effects on total fat or energy intakes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial, Randomized Controlled Trial

Bron: J Am Diet Assoc. 2005 Jul;105(7):1087-96


Melatonin in walnuts: influence on levels of melatonin and total antioxidant capacity of blood.

Researchers: Reiter RJ, Manchester LC, Tan DX.
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA

Melatonin is present in walnuts and, when eaten, increase blood melatonin concentrations. The increase in blood melatonin levels correlates with an increased antioxidative capacity of this fluid as reflected by augmentation of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and ferric-reducing ability of serum values.

Bron: Nutrition. 2005 Sep;21(9):920-4


Walnut extract inhibits the fibrillization of amyloid beta-protein, and also defibrillizes its preformed fibrils.

Researchers: Chauhan N, Wang KC, Wegiel J, Malik MN.
NYS Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, 1050 Forest Hill Road, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA

Fibrillar amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effect of walnut extract on Abeta fibrillization by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The walnut extract not only inhibited Abeta fibril formation in a concentration and time- dependent manner but it was also able to defibrillize Abeta preformed fibrils. Over 90% inhibition of Abeta fibrillization was observed with 5 microl of methanolic extract of walnut (MEOW) both after 2 and 3 days of incubation. The maximum defibrillization (91.6%) was observed when preformed Abeta fibrils were incubated with 10 microl of MEOW for 2 days. These results suggest that walnuts may reduce the risk or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease by maintaining Abeta in the soluble form. Further studies showed that anti-amyloidogenic compound in walnut is an organic compound of molecular weight less than 10 kDa, which is neither a lipid nor a protein. Chloroform extract of walnut had no effect on Abeta fibrillization while MEOW and its 10 kDa filtrate inhibited Abeta fibrillization equally. It is proposed that polyphenolic compounds (such as flavonoids) present in walnuts may be responsible for its anti-amyloidogenic activity.

Bron: Curr Alzheimer Res. 2004 Aug;1(3):183-8


Including walnuts in a low-fat/modified-fat diet improves HDL cholesterol-to-total cholesterol ratios in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Researchers: Tapsell LC, Gillen LJ, Patch CS, Batterham M, Owen A, Bare M, Kennedy M.  National Centre of Excellence in Functional Foods, Northfields Avenue, University of Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a moderate-fat diet inclusive of walnuts on blood lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: Structured "whole of diet" advice that included 30 g of walnuts/day delivering substantial amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid improved the lipid profile of patients with type 2 diabetes.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial, Randomized Controlled Trial

Bron: Diabetes Care. 2004 Dec;27(12):2777-83


Nuts for cardiovascular protection.

Strahan TM. , Bundaberg Specialist Centre, Bundaberg, Australia.

Studies of diet and heart disease have shown beneficial effects of vegetarian and Mediterranean dietary patterns. Recent studies have further examined which particular foods contained in these diets may be responsible for the cardioprotective effect observed in epidemiological studies. In vegetarian populations it appears that nuts may be exerting the strongest protective effect. This was an unexpected finding since it was anticipated that the absence of meat eating would be the dominant factor. When other population groups were examined similar findings became apparent demonstrating a strong cardioprotective effect from nut ingestion approaching the level of effect seen with the use of lipid lowering medication. It has been estimated that 1oz of daily nut ingestion may reduce the risk of fatal CHD by 45% when substituted for saturated fat and by 30% when substituted for carbohydrate intake. Studies to date have not identified which particular nuts may be of most benefit although it is possible to speculate that the lipid profile of walnuts may confer the most advantage. Efforts to identify possible mechanisms whereby nuts may be exerting their cardioprotection have led to feeding trials with a wide variety of nuts. These have consistently shown that regular nut consumption can result in a 10% reduction in LDL-C within a few weeks. Other known properties of nuts that have been considered to be of possible benefit include high levels of arginine, vitamin E, folate, fibre, potassium, magnesium, tannins and polyphenols. Although nuts contain approximately 80% fat the nut feeding trials have not shown any associated weight gain in those ingesting nuts suggesting the addition of nuts in the diet may have a satiating effect. It is concluded that the daily ingestion of a small quantity of nuts may be one of the most acceptable lifestyle interventions for the prevention of coronary heart disease.

PMID: 15294495

Bron: Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(Suppl):S33


Fatty acid profile, tocopherol, squalene and phytosterol content of walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut.

Maguire LS, O'Sullivan SM, Galvin K, O'Connor TP, O'Brien NM
Department of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland.

Nuts are high in fat but have a fatty acid profile that may be beneficial in relation to risk of coronary heart disease. Nuts also contain other potentially cardioprotective constituents including phytosterols, tocopherols and squalene. In the present study, the total oil content, peroxide value, composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols and squalene content were determined in the oil extracted from freshly ground walnuts, almonds, peanuts, hazelnuts and the macadamia nut. The total oil content of the nuts ranged from 37.9 to 59.2%, while the peroxide values ranged from 0.19 to 0.43 meq O2/kg oil. The main monounsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) with substantial levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) present in the macadamia nut. The main polyunsaturated fatty acids present were linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3). alpha-Tocopherol was the most prevalent tocopherol except in walnuts. The levels of squalene detected ranged from 9.4 to 186.4 microg/g. beta-Sitosterol was the most abundant sterol, ranging in concentration from 991.2 to 2071.7 microg/g oil. Campesterol and stigmasterol were also present in significant concentrations. Our data indicate that all five nuts are a good source of monounsaturated fatty acid, tocopherols, squalene and phytosterols.

Bron: Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 May;55(3):171-8


Serum lipid profiles in Japanese women and men during consumption of walnuts.

Iwamoto M, Imaizumi K, Sato M, Hirooka Y, Sakai K, Takeshita A, Kono M.
Laboratory of Nutrition Chemistry, Division of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Graduate School, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective was to determine the serum cholesterol, apolipoproteins and LDL oxidizability in young Japanese women and men during walnut consumption and to evaluate its active principle. Conclusion: alpha-Linolenic acid in the walnut diet appears to be responsible for the lowering of LDL cholesterol in women.

Publication Types: Clinical Trial, Randomized Controlled Trial

Bron: Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jul;56(7):629-37

PMID: 12080402


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Albert, C.M., W.C. Willett, J.E. Manson, and C.H. Hennekens. Nut consumption and the risk of sudden and total cardiac death in the physician's health study. Circulation. 1998; 98(Suppl. 1):582 (abstract).

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Lavedrine, F., D. Zmitou, A. Ravel, F. Balducci, and J. Alary. Blood cholesterol and walnut consumption: A cross-sectional survey in France. Preventive Medicine. 1999;28:333-339.

Muñoz, S., M. Merlos, D. Zambón, C. Rodriquez, J. Sabaté, E. Ros, and J.C. Laguna. Walnut-enriched diet increases the association of LDL from hypercholesterolemic men with human HepG2 cells. Journal of Lipid Research. 2001;42:2069-2076.

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