Thaumatine suikervervanger


logo.jpg (7231 bytes)

Google

Deze pagina is verouderd - ontvang onze nieuwtjes per email

 

Thaumatine - de nieuwe suikervervanger ?


thaumatine.jpg (38440 bytes) Ik kreeg van Jan Koopmans een leuke tip over een suikervervanger die heel interessant is. Het gaat om de stof Thaumatine (Thaumatococcus daniellii) die 2-3000 keer zoeter smaakt dan gewone suiker. Deze stof zit in het katemfe fruit uit Afrika en is toegelaten in de EU onder E nummer E-957. Net zoals stevia kan dit een goed alternatief worden voor aspartaam en gewone suiker. In de gaten houden dus.

De voordelen:

  • Natuurlijk product, intensieve zoetkracht
  • Multifunctioneel ingrediënt met voordelen voor smaak en zoetheid
  • Effectief voor het verbergen van nasmaken
  • Stabiel bij hoge temperaturen en het heeft ook een goede pH stabiliteit
  • Synergetische werking indien toegepast in combinatie met ander intensieve zoetstoffen (de combinatie van zoetstoffen heeft meer zoetkracht dan de som van de individuele zoetstoffen afzonderlijk).

Geschikt voor gebruik in:

  • tafelzoetstoffen
  • ijs
  • vitaminen en dieetproducten
  • snoepgoed zonder toegevoegde suiker
  • snoepgoed op basis van cacao of gedroogde vruchten
  • kauwgom

Thaumatine is goedgekeurd door JECFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives van de FAO/WHO1) en door het Wetenschappelijk Comité voor de Menselijke Voeding (SCF) van de Europese Commissie. Deze comités hebben aan thaumatine als ADD toegekend "niet gespecificeerd", hetgeen wil zeggen dat thaumatine kan worden gebruikt volgens GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice). Thaumatine is opgenomen in Table III van de Codex General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA). Dit wil zeggen dat het is toegestaan voor gebruik in levensmiddelen in het algemeen, tenzij anders gespecificeerd, volgens GMP.

De Verenigde Staten: Thaumatine is ingedeeld als GRAS2 door de FEMA3, die als adviseur optreedt voor de Food and Drug Administration. Aan thaumatine is nummer 3732 toegekend . Het is toegelaten voor gebruik in meer dan 30 verschillende voedingscategorieën.

Japan: Thaumatine wordt beschouwd als "natuurlijke voeding" en is in algemene zin toegestaan voor gebruik in menselijk en dierlijk voedsel.

Het slechte nieuws is dat je het poeder niet zo kan kopen want warenwet staat het alleen toe als toevoeging in voeding:

  • Toegelaten in kauwgom zonder toegevoegde suikers, maximumconcentratie 10 mg/kg uitsluitend als smaakversterker (wanneer E 957 in combinatie met E 950, E951 en/of E 959 wordt gebruikt, worden de afzonderlijke concentraties evenredig verminderd).
  • Gearomatiseerde niet-alcoholische dranken op basis van water, maximumconcentratie 0,5 mg/l.
  • Desserts (al dan niet op basis van zuivelproducten), maximumconcentratie 5 mg/l (uitsluitend toegestaan als smaakversterker).
  • Gebruik als zoetstof: Snoepgoed zonder toegevoegde suikers, maximumconcentratie 50 mg/kg.
  • Snoepgoed op basis van cacao of gedroogde vruchten, met verlaagde energiewaarde of zonder toegevoegde suikers, maximumconcentratie 50 mg/kg.
  • Kauwgum zonder toegevoegde suikers, maximumconcentratie 50 mg/kg.
  • Voedingssupplementen/integratiesubstanties voor dieetproducten op basis van vitaminen of mineraalelementen in de vorm van siroop of kauwtabletten, maximumconcentratie 400 mg/kg
  • Consumptie-ijs, met verlaagde energiewaarde of zonder toegevoegde suikers, maximumconcentratie 50 mg/kg.

Het ondemocratische echter is dat alleen de industrie over deze grondstof kan beschikken. Dus hopelijk gaat de industrie deze vorm van suiker snel als alternatief gebruiken voor omstreden synthetische suikers zoals Aspartaam.

Dus u ziet dat we wederom geen direkte toegang krijgen tot een gezond alternatief voor suiker, de mogelijke oplossing voor diabetes 2 en problemen mbt overgewicht bij kinderen liggen voor het grijpen maar ons centraal Europees gezag blokkeert zowel Stevia als Thaumatine voor de consument.

Is dit nu de democratie waar ze onze stem voor wilden hebben ? Europa voor de Europeanen of voor de burocraten met nog meer regeltjes.....

Ron


Wel in Engeland te koop

Thaumatine wordt wel in Engeland verkocht voor gebruik in aas voor vissers en kost daar 100 ml voor 14.25 engelse ponden

Thaumatin-B

This extremely powerful, yet 100% natural protein sweetener has been kept hush, hush for a number of years. No particle presentation is complete without the addition of Thaumatin-B at 5ml per kilo (each bottle is sufficient for 20 kgs of particles!) Thaumatin-B can also be used to great effect at low levels in boilie recipes or bait dip/soaks to boost attraction properties. Not sold elsewhere under a different name and is therefore totally exclusive to Essential users.

www.essentialbaits.com/ATTRACTORS-ADDITIVES


Achtergrond informatie

Thaumatine is een zoetsmakend eiwit dat kan worden geïsoleerd uit het katemfe fruit uit west-Afrika. Er is waarschijnlijk een aantal verwante eiwitten in deze plant; twee belangrijke vormen thaumatine I en thaumatine II zijn bekend.

Het fruit bevat tussen 1 en 3 zwarte zaden die omgeven worden door een gel. Er is een zakvormig membraan, aril genoemd, dat het zoete materiaal bevat.

Thaumatine is heel erg zoet: de smaak komt langzaam op gang, maar blijft minutenlang intact. De sterkte van de zoete smaak is ongeveer 2000x die van een gelijk gewicht aan sucrose.

Thaumatine is toegelaten als voedseladditief E-957. Het wordt onder andere gebruikt in snoepgoed en kauwgom, waar de lange zoete nasmaak een voordeel is.

Toen thaumatine werd ontdekt was het het enige zoetsmakende eiwit. Er bestaat nog steeds onduidelijkheid over het mechanisme van de zoetheid van thaumatine. Er zijn theorieën dat de zoete smaak niet zoals gewoonlijk voor andere zoetstoffen kan worden toegeschreven aan een eenvoudige binding met de zoete smaak receptor op de tong, maar bijvoorbeeld aan een werking als selectief protease waardoor de receptor continu actief blijft.

De driedimensionale structuur van thaumatine is bepaald met behulp van Röntgenkristallografie. Dit heeft het mechanisme van de zoetheid tot nog toe niet kunnen ophelderen. Toen de structuurbepaling voor het eerst werd geprobeerd was deze niet zeer succesvol. De vele mislukte pogingen gaven het eiwit de bijnaam traumatine. Inmiddels (2004) is deze structuurbepaling erg eenvoudig en wordt thaumatine zelfs als testeiwit gebruikt voor het vergelijken van de prestaties van verschillende instrumenten voor diffractie.

Bron: Wikipedia


Persbericht van het Fraunhofer instituut in Duitsland

African sweetener

One present-day form of colonialism works like this: A company sends researchers into the rainforest to discover promising new natural substances. Once found, the company registers a patent or trademark and begins to cash-in. Even more effective is the latest variant: Instead of using the plant itself, the relevant gene is isolated and transplanted in a single-cell organism such as yeast or bacteria, allowing the substance to be reproduced in a fermenter located in the motherland. The disadvantage to this approach is well known: The exploited overseas country is left empty-handed.

The West African nation of Ghana is showing how to counter this. In April 2001, the Oda-Kotoamso Community Agroforestry Project (OCAP) was initiated with the aim of promoting the sustainable cultivation of heavily deforested areas, preserving plant species diversity and generating new income sources for the indigenous population. Engaged in the project are the timber company Samartex, landowners, farm tenants and government officials. The German Development Service (Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst DED) is assisting with technical issues.

A useful plant that can easily be cultivated under plantation trees is the katemfe bush, a plant native to the African rainforest. That thaumatin, one of the strongest known natural sweeteners, can be extracted from the katemfe berry is not a new discovery. The U.S. FDA long ago classified thaumatin as “generally recognized as safe” and the EU approved its use in chewing gum, desserts and soups under E 957. The low-calorie sweet protein is already being marketed and attempts to produce it by genetic engineering are underway. To ensure that the former colony doesn’t miss out, a production facility to exploit this natural resource is currently being set up in Ghana. Financial aid is being provided by the DEG (Deutsche Investitions- und Entwicklungsgesellschaft mbH).

“We deliberately kept the entire process simple, from processing the berries to the finished powder product,” emphasizes Dr. Wolfgang Krischke of the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology IGB in Stuttgart. “We designed and combined the individual steps such that the specialists in Ghana, who we train in Germany, can service and repair the plant on their own as much as possible.” Samartex is currently analyzing the German market and is already establishing contacts with potential customers. A Hohenheim University working group is looking into ways of maximizing crop revenues.

Fraunhofer-Institut für Grenzflächen-
und Bioverfahrenstechnik IGB
Nobelstraße 12
70569 Stuttgart
Germany
Fax: +49 (0) 7 11 / 9 70-42 00

Dr. Wolfgang Krischke
Phone: +49 (0) 7 11 / 9 70-42 66

Dr. Hans Weber
Phone: +49 (0) 7 11 / 9 70-42 45


Thaumatin

Among sweeteners, natural sweet proteins are unique in that they are natural, often have high sweetness potency compared to sugar and decompose into a normal distribution of amino acids on hydrolysis. To date, thaumatin is the only commercially available ‘natural protein’ sweetener.

This versatile ingredient has a wide range of applications in foods and drinks and particularly in the field of taste modification and flavour enhancement.

Full article here


Nature's Sugar High

Your sweet tooth may get a treat that is literally "out of this world," thanks to experiments aboard the Space Shuttle.

A team comprising French and American scientists reports they have crystallized one of the most interesting families of intensely sweet proteins, a natural molecule called thaumatin, isolated from the African Serendipity Berry (Thaumatococcus daniellii).

Using otherwise similar crystallizing conditions, the space crystal showed a nearly 25% larger volume compared to its earth-grown counterparts and yielded nearly twice the crystalline order. Scientists hope to use the space-grown crystals to improve the biological understanding of how these molecules work based on detailed knowledge of their shape and exact atomic positions. According to the study, the visual quality of the space crystals "appeared virtually flawless, with no observable imperfections, striations or anomalies."

The complex and costly management of human diabetes, obesity, and oral health has spawned a widespread search for natural sugar substitutes that are both non-caloric and safe. The calorie-free thaumatin protein, sometimes called nature's "artificial sweetener" was analyzed by scientists from the University of California, Irvine and the Institute for Molecular Biology in Strasbourg, France.

In a control study, the team compared space-grown thaumatin crystals with some previously obtained from on earth in a conventional laboratory. They found that the space crystals provided 30% more real information about the molecule's shape. This moves the investigation closer to revealing the biological function of these complex molecules

According to their report, the space crystals reinforce the conclusion of other reports based on different macromolecules that a microgravity environment provides distinct advantages. In the best of only a few thaumatin crystals grown in microgravity, compared with many more trials conducted on earth, the microgravity grown crystals were consistently and significantly larger, and substantially more defect free. This is the first experiment to produce space crystals by multiple methods, both suggesting the same conclusion: crystals grown in microgravity can be significantly improved in their x-ray diffraction properties when compared with those grown on earth.

The natural proteins as a group are the sweetest compounds ever discovered. The sweet taste - which depends on nearly 100 different sensory receptors on the tongue - can be detected in the presence of thaumatin at concentrations well below one part protein molecule per 100 million parts of water. On a scale in which 0 refers to no sweetness, 1 refers to table sugar or sucrose, then thaumatin is nearly off the scale at 3,000, more than 10 times sweeter than other sugar substitutes like saccharin or aspartame.

Because these kinds of complex sensory-stimulating proteins typically require binding to specific taste receptors, much of their biology remains to be worked out in the kind of studies done on the space shuttle and using modern tools of biological crystallography. Already within the bulk commercialization by biotechnology companies, Tate & Lyle's product, Talin, is marketed from thaumatin. Also, at the Unilever Research Laboratory in The Netherlands, the gene for this sweetener has been cloned into biological production using the microorganisms E. coli and yeast to substitute for the original African shrub.

As a non-caloric sweetener, thaumatin has attracted attention as a candidate for control of obesity, oral health and diabetic management. Thaumatin already is being marketed as a nutritional supplement in blood sugar stabilizers for childhood behavioral problems and the more than 3.5 million sufferers from attention deficit disorder. Among soft drink consumers alone, nearly 20.6 million tons of chemicals are used around the world - nearly 4 kilograms per capita, with a growth of about 20% towards the end of the decade.

Control of diabetes, the most common metabolic disease in the world, largely hinges on managing sugar levels in the bloodstream. According to a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, one out of every 7 health care dollars, or $105 billion goes to the treatment of diabetes-related complications. Individual diabetics spent an average of $9,493 on health care in 1992, the latest data available, compared with $2,604 for people without diabetes, the study said. The National Institutes of Health proved that nearly 16 million diabetic patients who can potentially maintain blood-sugar levels as close as possible to normal can significantly slow the disease.


Diverse onderzoeken naar Thaumatine

http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v20je15.htm


Studies

Barker, J.D., Hiscox, D.N., & Wood, C.M. (1981). Talin protein: 90-day
toxicity study in the dog by dietary admixture. Unpublished
report No. TAL/2/81 from Toxicol Laboratories, Ltd., Ledbury,
England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Ben-Dyke, R. (1975). Talin: Acute oral toxicity in mice. Unpublished
report No. 75/TYL2/058 from Life Science Research, Stock,
England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Ben-Dyke, R. & Joseph, E.C. (1976). Talin: Acute oral toxicity in
rats. Unpublished report No. 76/TYL5/131 from Life Science
Research, Stock, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Ben-Dyke, R., Ashby, R., & Newman, A.J. (1976). Talin: Toxicity in
dietary administration to rats for thirteen weeks. Unpublished
report No. 76/TYL4/188 from Life Science Research, Stock,
England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Daniell, W.F. (1855). Katemfe, or the miraculous fruit of
Soudan. Pharm. J., 14, 158.

Danks, A., Hooks, W., Ashby, R., & Whitney, J.C. (1984). Talin: Four-
week dietary study in rats to investigate thyroid function.
Unpublished report No. TYL/073/TAL from Life Science Research,
Stock, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Eaton, K.K., Daniel, J.W., Snodin, D.J., Higginbotham, J.D.,
Stanworth, D.R., & Al-Mosawie, T. (1981). Talin protein:
Assessment in man for oral allergenicity on challenge testing.
Unpublished report submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Edwards, D.G. (1981). Talin (Thaumatin): Nitrogen digestibility in the
rat. Unpublished report No. B.128 from RHM Research Ltd., High
Wycombe, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Higginbotham, J.D. (1978). The digestibility of Talin protein in
vitro. Unpublished report from Tate & Lyle PLC, Reading,
England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Higginbotham, J.D. (1980). Mutagenicity testing of Talin protein
sweetener in vitro. Unpublished report from Tate & Lyle PLC,
Reading, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Higginbotham, J.D., Snodin, D.J., Eaton, K.K., & Daniel, J.W. (1983).
Safety Evaluation of Thaumatin (Talin protein). Fd. Chem.
Toxicol., 21, 815-823.

Higginbotham, J.D., & Stephens, J.P. (1984). Food uses of
Thaumatococcus daniellii in West Africa. Unpublished report
from Tate & Lyle PLC, Reading, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate
& Lyle PLC.

Hiscox, D.N., Hill, R.E., & Wood, C.M. (1981). Talin protein: 90-day
toxicity study in the rat by dietary admixture. Unpublished
report No. TAL/1/81 from Toxicol Laboratories Ltd., Ledbury,
England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Hsu, H.W., Vavak, D.L., Satterlee, L.D., & Miller, G.A. (1977). A
multienzyme technique for estimating protein digestibility.
J. Food Sci., 42, 1269-1273.

Iyengar, R.B., Smits, P., van der Ouderaa, F., van der Wel, H., van
Brouwershaven, J., Ravestein, P., Richters, G., & van Wassenaar,
P. (1979). The complete amino-acid sequence of the sweet protein
thaumatin. I. Eur. J. Biochem., 96, 193-204.

MacLeod, G.L., Eaton, K.K., Daniel, J.W., Snodin, D.J., Higginbotham,
J.D., & Waite, D. (1981). Assessment of oral sensitisation and
irritation when formulated in peppermint chewing gum. Unpublished
report submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Stanworth, D.R. (1977). Preliminary assessment of the potential
allergenicity of the sweet protein, Talin. Unpublished research
report from the University of Birmingham, England. Submitted to
WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Tesh, J.M., Davidson, E.J., & Willoughby, C.R. (1977a). Talin: Test
for dominant lethality in the male mouse. Unpublished report No.
77/TYL11/096 from Life Science Research, Stock, England.
Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Tesh, J.M., Earthy, M., Tesh, S.A., & Willoughby, C.R. (1977b). Talin:
Effects of oral administration upon pregnancy in the rat.
Unpublished report No. 77/TYL10/179 from Life Science Research,
Stock, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Tompkins, G.D. & Enticknap, J.B. (1984). A comparison of the effects
on the chemical and cellular composition of blood following the
administration of thaumatin and egg albumin to human subjects for
13 weeks. Unpublished report submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.

Wood, C.M. (1984). 90-day toxicity study in the rat by dietary
admixture; further microscopic examination of thyroids from rats
in study TAL/1/81. Unpublished report from Toxicol Laboratories
Ltd., Ledbury, England. Submitted to WHO by Tate & Lyle PLC.


Links

http://www.igb.fraunhofer.de/WWW/GF/DP/en/GFDP_25_Thaumatin.en.html

http://www.samartex.com/samartex/

http://www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v20je15.htm

http://www.afrol.com/printable_article/10706

http://www.emsl.pnl.gov/homes/msd/bionmr/kate_science.htm

http://www.crdi.ca/en/ev-30127-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html

http://www.grain.org/seedling/?id=159


 

 


 


View My Stats