rijstolie en voeding


logo.jpg (7231 bytes)

Google

Deze pagina is verouderd - ontvang onze nieuwtjes per email

 

Rijstolie


Rijstolie is in Nederland niet zo bekend maar kan interessant alternatief worden voor div bak en wok oliŽn omdat het brandpunt van de olie
(wanneer de olie begint te roken) hoger ligt, dus in principe gezonder.

Het wordt wel al veel in cosmetica gebruikt ivm de vitamine E in de olie.
De stof oryzanol wordt gewonnen uit rijstolie, en beschermt bijv het haar door zijn antioxiderende(=antiveroudering) werking.

Ik ben even op de site geweest van King Rice Bran oil maar kan niets
vinden of we hier praten over geraffinieerde olie of extra virgin. Ik
vrees echter het eerste maar we wachten af.... Het mooiste is altijd
koude persing maar dat zal wel niet.

Als ik de wetenschappelijke studies bestudeer dan kan Becel Pro active
wel inpakken..

Ik weet dat rijstolie te koop is bij AH en waarschijnlijk ook bij diverse tokos...

Ron


King Rice Bran Oil

King Rice Bran Oil (rijstolie) wordt verkregen uit de vliesjes van Thaise rijst.
Rijstolie is over de hele wereld erkend als 'gezondheidsolie'. Deze transvet vrije olie is namelijk rijk aan vitamine E, bevat als enige plantaardige olie de sterke natuurlijke antioxidant Oryzanol en heeft een hoog aandeel aan enkelvoudig onverzadigde vetten. Daarnaast heeft rijstolie een neutrale smaak en een hoog rookpunt. Dit maakt rijstolie perfect geschikt voor salades en marinades, maar vooral voor wokken, roerbakken, bakken,
braden en frituren.

Bij deze manieren van koken is het namelijk belangrijk om de olie goed te verhitten; hoe heter de olie, des te eerder het voedsel dichtschroeit en des te beter de smaak behouden blijft. Bij gewone olijfolie ligt het rookpunt op 211 C. Bij olijfolie extra vierge ligt het rookpunt al op 122 C. Wordt de temperatuur van deze extra vierge olijfolie hoger dan 180 C, dan komen er zelfs schadelijke stoffen vrij. Rijstolie daarentegen, kan zonder problemen verhit worden tot maarliefst 245 C.

Chefkok Ben van Beurten van Restaurant Fifteen in Amsterdam gebruikt King Rice Bran Oil sinds de introductie in Nederland: 'Rijstolie past helemaal bij onze filosofie: het is een gezonde olie. Rijstolie heeft een hoge verbrandingsgraad en daardoor blijven de vitamines in de olie en de smaak veel langer behouden. Veel mensen gebruiken dure olijfolie om mee te bakken, maar olijfolie verliest al bij 30 C zijn smaak. Dat is zonde van het geld. Rijstolie is wat dat betreft een stuk voordeliger. Het is goede olie, ik
gebruik hem heel vaak'.

De vitamine E types (tocopherol en tocotrinol) en Oryzanol in de rijstolie zijn
natuurlijke antioxidanten. Deze antioxidanten bestrijden vrije radicalen en helpen bij het verlagen van het cholesterolgehalte in het bloed. Vanwege de aanwezigheid van deze antioxidanten wordt rijstolie ook wereldwijd verwerkt in cosmeticaproducten.

Wil je meer weten over de productie van deze olie:

http://www.thaiedibleoil.com/english/product_process.php


Autisme en rijstolie

Ik vond op een Amerikaans forum een verhaal van een moeder met een zoon die autisme heeft en die veel baat heeft bij een pure (koude persing) van deze olie:

http://www.abchomeopathy.com/forum2.php/23792/


Rizi rice oil

Rich in Gamma Oryzanol, which has been found reduces LDL cholesterol. Low in saturated fat with a good balance of poly and mono unsaturated fats. Consisting of almost 80% of oleic and linoleic fatty acids while free of trans fatty acids (TFA’s). Anti-oxidant properties provide oxidation stability and produce foods with good storage life. With low viscosity and weak adhesion properties even at low temperatures, Rice Bran Oil will adhere less to food Recommended by the American Heart Association and WHO.

http://www.caribecom.nl


Gamma-oryzanol

For Gamma-oryzanol, various kinds of pharmacodynamic and applied clinical effects including growing effect 2) are reported and especially the following therapeutic effects are known on various symptoms caused by cephalic or cervical injuries (whiplash injury) 3), autonomic imbalance 4) 5), menopausal syndrome 6) 7), its accompanied malaises 8`11), amenia, hypoovarianism 12) and stress ulcers 13) 14).

In addition, Gamma-oryzanol has such functions as circulation effect 15) 16), sebum secretomotor effect 17) and ultraviolet absorbing effect 18) derived from ferulic acid. Moreover, for anti-oxidant action, in comparison with tocopherol, Gamma-oryzanol is reported to be much superior in heat resistance 15) and it is also said that the interaction between them further improves the anti-oxidant action. From these facts, Gamma-oryzanol seems to be very useful 19). It also provides extremely high safety 20) because any special side effect is found in spite of showing many hormonelike effects. Its applications include the utilization to various drug material making use of its multiple medicinal effects and, in cosmetic area, the application to creams and sunscreens 21P24) exploiting its skin age resistor function 15) and ultraviolet absorbing effect.

It is listed as "oxidation inhibitor" in the "Food Additive List" and, for this usage, there are a lot of patents 25`39). Although Gamma-oryzanol has a steroid hormonelike effect, it is consistently safe and is mixed in the feed for racehorses as an additive because it is not an inhibited agent. Currently, some esters including cycloaltenylpherrate have begun to be produced and studies on their respective functions are being performed.

Ref
1) Endo et al.,Journal of the Japan Oil Chemists' Society,7,6 (1968)
2) T.Tsuchiya et al.,Kogyo Kagaku Zasshi,57,526 (1954)
3) R.Hiyama et al.,Pharmacometrics,12,(3),363 (1967)
4) Kusuda et al.,Obstetrical and Gynecological Practice,14,(7),587 (1965)
5) S.Tsutsui et al.,Clinical Evaluation,13,1,137 (1985)
6) Murase,Obstetrical and Gynecological Practice,12,(2),147 (1963)
7) Okawa et al.,World of Obstetrics and Gynecology,17,2,65 (1965)
8) S.Takeuchi et al.,World of Obstetrics and Gynecology,33,11,87 (1981)
9) S.Kishi et al,Journal of New Remedies & Clinics,25,12,33 (1976)
10) T.Takemoto et al.,Journal of Adult Diseases,7,11,133 (1977)
11) T.Yamaguchi et al.,Journal of New Remedies & Clinics,23,7,3 (1974)
12) Watanabe et al.,Obstetrical and Gynecological Practice,14,959 (1965)
13) Itatani et al.,,Folia pharmacol. japon,72,475 (1976)
14) Itatani et al.,Folia pharmacol. japon.,72,1001 (1976)
15) Kamimura et al.,Japanese Journal of Clinical Dermatology,17,(4),369 (1963)
16) M.Kobayashi,Journal of Japanese Cosmetic Science Society,8,1,41 (1984)
17) M.Oshida§Research on Home Medicines,No.4,34 (1985)
18) T.Fukushi et al.,Hokkaido Kosho Eisei Kenkyujo Hokoku,16,115 (1966)
19) Nomura,Journal of New Remedies & Clinics,29,5,158 (1980)
20) Hanesato et al.,Clinical Report,8,(11),3417 (1974)
21) M.Mitani,Jpn.Tokkyo Koho 1969-58003
22) T.Sato,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1978-64208
23) Nomura et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1980-55108
24) K.Ishibashi,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1996-188521
25) Tsuchiya et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1983-150600
26) Tsuchiya et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1982-149248
27) Asano et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1976-56441
28) Asano et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1975-160262
29) G.Kimura,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1988-14797
30) G.Kimura,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1986-14796
31) Y.Kimura,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1980-162740
32) Tagashira et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1987-277326
33) Tagashira et al,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1986-106512
34) S.Ito§Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1985-130598
35) J.Imadu et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1975-66746
36) K.Kobayashi et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1986-248407
37) T.Inagaki.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1986-40298
38) T.Inagaki et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1985-248611
39) Goto et al.,Jpn.Kokai Tokkyo Koho 1986-194022

http://www.tsuno.co.jp/e/04/06/index.htm


Oryzanol
Crude rice bran oil contains about 1.5% or more gamma-oryzanol, a group of ferulate esters of triterpene alcohols and phytosterols. The high antioxidant property of gamma-oryzanol has been widely recognized. Studies have shown several physiological effects related to gamma-oryzanol and related rice bran oil components. These include its ability to reduce plasma cholesterol (Lichenstein et al., 1994), reduce cholesterol absorption and decrease early atherosclerosis (Rong et al., 1997), inhibit platelet aggregation (Seetharamaiah et al., 1990), and increase fecal bile acid excretion (Seetharamaiah and Chandrasekhara, 1990). Oryzanol has also been used to treat nerve imbalance and disorders of menopause (Nakayama et al., 1987).

Tocotrienols
Rice bran oil is the only readily available oil, other than palm, that contains significant levels (approximately 500 ppm) of tocotrienols (Eitenmiller, 1997). These occur in at least four known forms and are similar to the tocopherols in chemical structure. They belong to the vitamin E family and are powerful natural antioxidants (Tomeo et al., 1995). The protective benefits of dietary antioxidants in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer have been widely publicized (Eitenmiller, 1997; Nesaretnam et al., 1998).

http://www.ricebranoil.info/apps/nutra.html


Health food

  • It is good for heart. it contains Oryzanol which increases HDL (good) Cholesterol and lowers LDL (bad) Cholesterol and triglycerides.
  • it has the ideal ratio of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and is the closest to World Health Organisation recommendation.
  • It is good for skin. It contains Squalene which improves skin tone and delays wrinkle formation.
  • It has natural antioxidants which protect against diseases.
  • It has 4 hydroxy 3 methoxy Cinnamic acid which stimulates hormonal secretion and rejuvenates health.
  • It has Tocopherol (Vit. E) which helps in maintaining balance of nervous system.
  • It has Tocotrienol which has anti-thrombotic and anti-Cancer properties.
  • Food fried in refined Rice Bran Oil absorbs 15% less oil, lower calorie intake.

http://www.seaofindia.com/ricebran2.html


Can rice bran oil melt away cholesterol?

A natural component of rice bran oil lowers cholesterol in rats, and ongoing research also shows it may have potential as an anti-cancer and anti-infection agent in humans, according to a University of Rochester scientist who has studied the antioxidant since 1996.

The latest findings from Mohammad Minhajuddin, Ph.D., and colleagues, are reported in the May 2005 Food and Chemical Toxicology journal. They show that total cholesterol levels in animals dropped by 42 percent, and LDL or "bad cholesterol" levels dropped up to 62 percent, after their diets were supplemented with a concentrated form of Vitamin E called tocotrienol rich fraction or TRF isolated from rice bran oil.

Vitamin E, which has been widely studied for its health benefits, consists of both tocopherols and tocotrienols. Much research has focused on the tocopherols derived from corn, wheat and soybean. But the tocotrienols (TRF) seem to have greater antioxidant properties and are becoming more noteworthy in scientific research, Minhajuddin says. TRF is derived from barley, oats, palm and rice bran.

The best form of TRF comes from rice bran oil, which is contained in the outer grain hull of rice. Its properties inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. However, since taking any form of Vitamin E for a long time can be harmful, the purpose of Minhajuddin's latest reported research was to find the minimum dose of TRF that provided the maximum antioxidants and effectively lowered cholesterol.

The results: The most effective dose in rats was 8 IU kg/day. Extrapolated to humans, a person with an average body weight of 154 pounds would get around 560 IU, which is close to the 400 IU of Vitamin E normally taken. (The upper tolerable intake of Vitamin E is 1500 IU).

Researchers have been investigating natural ways (besides diet and exercise) to achieve lower cholesterol levels, despite the popularity and effectiveness of statin drugs. Although millions of Americans take statins and do well, they are expensive and they come with side effects. So far, scientists have not found any adverse effects of tocotrienols, says Minhajuddin, a research associate in the Department of Pediatrics.

Minhajuddin, who is from India, also has preliminary, unpublished data from a study he conducted in that country, showing that TRF reduces cholesterol in humans as well as in animals. Five healthy volunteers with total cholesterol levels in the "normal" range of 170-230 mg/dL, who ingested TRF in capsule form at a dose of 8 IU kg/day for four weeks, saw their cholesterol levels drop by 10 percent with a 26-percent decline in LDL-cholesterol levels. A case study of a 5-year-old boy in India, who had a genetic defect (familial hypercholesterolemia) that caused his total cholesterol to climb to 440 mg/dL, resulted in a 20-percent decline after about two months of tocotrienol supplements. The boy's cholesterol did rise again, however, after 100 weeks of TRF supplements.

In addition, Minhajuddin and colleagues previously showed in animals that TRF reacts with liver enzymes in such a way that it clears toxic substances from the organ, and reduces or stabilizes liver tumors. The group concluded that long-term use of tocotrienol might reduce overall cancer risk, according to published research last year in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention. Currently, Minhajuddin's research group is using a scientific model to study infection and the immune system, and how to regulate the expression of a gene called ICAM-1 on the surface of endothelial cells.

Bron: University of Rochester Medical Center  


Rice bran oil shown to drastically, safely reduce cholesterol

A natural form of vitamin E found in rice bran oil has been shown to reduce cholesterol in rats up to 42 percent and lower LDL, or "bad" cholesterol, up to 62 percent, according to research in Food and Chemical Toxicology magazine. The rats' diets were supplemented with tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil, with no adverse effects. Tocotrienols are a lesser-known form of vitamin E found in barley, palm, oats and rice bran. Dr. Mohammad Minhajuddin and researchers at the University of Rochester say that TRF naturally inhibits the activity of HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme that synthesizes cholesterol, which is a major factor in heart disease, the leading cause of death in the world.

http://www.newstarget.com/007799.html


Rice bran oil, cholesterol-lowering food

Rice bran oil, or other sources of tocotrienols, could be of interest to food makers looking to enter the growing category of cholesterol-lowering foods, currently dominated by products containing plant sterols.

Cholesterol is a major risk factor for heart disease, the disease that kills more people than any other around the world.

So far, scientists have not found any adverse effects of tocotrienols, says Minhajuddin, a research associate in the Department of Pediatrics.

http://www.foodnavigator.com/news/news-ng.asp?n=59982-rice-bran-oil


Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in humans.

Rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. There were no substantial differences in the fatty acid composition of the diets; therefore, the reduction of cholesterol was due to other components present in the rice bran oil, such as unsaponifiable compounds.

Researchers: Most MM, Tulley R, Morales S, Lefevre M.

Division of Functional Foods Research, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jan;81(1):64-8

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/81/1/64


Increased immune response in mice consuming rice bran oil.

Rice Bran oil enriched diets could be useful in situations where a potentiation of the immune response was required. The fatty acids composition, more than the unsaponifiable fraction, might be responsible for this effect.

Sierra S, Lara-Villoslada F, Olivares M, Jimenez J, Boza J, Xaus J.
Immunology and Animal Science Dept., Puleva Biotech SA, Camino de Purchil 66, 18004, Granada, Spain, jxaus@pulevabiotech.es.
Eur J Nutr. 2005 Dec;44(8):509-16


Rice-bran products: phytonutrients with potential applications in preventive and clinical medicine.

This paper reviews phytonutrients from rice bran that have shown promising disease-preventing and health-related benefits in experimental research studies. Candidate products studied and under investigation include: inositol and related compounds, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 or phytate), rice oil, ferulic acid, gamma-oryzanol, plant sterols, tocotrienols and RICEO, a new rice-bran-derived product. Diseases in which preventive and/or nutraceutical effects have been detected include: cancer, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, and heart disease. In addition, rice-bran products may have potential applications as nutritional ingredients in the context of their utility in functional foods.

Jariwalla RJ. California Institute for Medical Research, San Jose, CA, USA.
Drugs Exp Clin Res. 2001;27(1):17-26


Effect of plant sterols from rice bran oil and triterpene alcohols from sheanut oil on serum lipoprotein concentrations in humans.

We found that 2.1 g plant sterols/d from rice bran oil lowered serum total cholesterol by 5% and LDL cholesterol by 9% in normolipemic humans, whereas triterpene alcohols from sheanut oil did not significantly affect lipoprotein concentrations in all subjects combined. The effect of rice bran oil sterols is probably due to ss-sitosterol and other 4-desmethylsterols and not to 4,4'-dimethylsterols.

Vissers MN, Zock PL, Meijer GW, Katan MB. Division of Human Nutrition and Epidemiology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Dec;72(6):1510-5

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/full/72/6/1510


Health benefits of rice bran oil.

Although scientific evidence is relatively limited, rice bran oil (RBO) is tenaciously believed to be a healthy vegetable oil in Asian countries. It exerts hypocholesterolemic activity in relation to more commonly used vegetable oils and is characterized by a relatively high content of non-fatty acid components, some of which are known to have beneficial health effects. Components specific for RBO such as gamma-oryzanol and tocotrienols could participate in its hypocholesterolemic effects. In addition, blending RBO with safflower oil, but not with sunflower oil, may magnify the hypocholesterolemic efficacy. This observation is of particular interest with regard to dietary intervention with RBO. The possible mechanism underlying this effect may at least in part be related to the specific triglyceride structure of safflower oil, differing from that of sunflower oil.

Sugano M, Koba K, Tsuji E. Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Prefectural University of Kumamoto, Japan.
Anticancer Res. 1999 Sep-Oct;19(5A):3651-7


Rice bran as a functional food

Rice bran and its oil may be among the most important sources of functional food components available in the world today, considering rice bran’s vast worldwide production and the fact that it is poorly used for human food consumption. Our efforts are revealing potential functional applications for rice bran in human foods. The importance of these efforts is becoming more critical because of the introduction to U.S. markets of margarine and other products, such as Benecol, containing compounds reputed to lower serum cholesterol that are similar to the oryzanol components under study.

http://www.lsuagcenter.com/en/


Can Rice Bran Oil Melt Away Cholesterol?

A natural component of rice bran oil lowers cholesterol in rats, and ongoing research also shows it may have potential as an anti-cancer and anti-infection agent in humans, according to a University of Rochester scientist who has studied the antioxidant since 1996.

The latest findings from Mohammad Minhajuddin, Ph.D., and colleagues, are reported in the May 2005 Food and Chemical Toxicology journal. They show that total cholesterol levels in animals dropped by 42 percent, and LDL or “bad cholesterol” levels dropped up to 62 percent, after their diets were supplemented with a concentrated form of Vitamin E called tocotrienol rich fraction or TRF isolated from rice bran oil.

http://www.urmc.rochester.edu/pr/news/story.cfm?id=782


Overzicht studies


Author(s): Scavariello EMS ; Arellano DB

Title: Gamma-Oryzanol: an important component in rice bran oil

Source: ARCHIVOS LATINOAMERICANOS DE NUTRICION 1998, Vol 48, Iss 1, pp 7-12

Language: Spanish

Abstract: gamma-Oryzanol, a mixture of ferulic acid esters of sterol and triterpene alcohols, it occurs in rice bran oil at a level of to 2%,where it serves as natural antioxidant. Recent research has shown that gamma-Oryzanol can lower the cholesterol levels in the blood, lowering the risk of coronary heart disease, besides that also has been used in Japan like natural antioxidant in foods, beverages and cosmetics. This review refers to aspects about gamma-Oryzanol, like its physiochemical properties, its presence in the rice bran oil, its antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic activity, as well as, identification, quantitation and extraction methods.

Author(s): Rong N; Ausman LM; Nicolosi RJ

Title: Oryzanol decreases cholesterol absorption and aortic fatty streaks in hamsters

Source: LIPIDS 1997, Vol 32, Iss 3, pp 303-309

Language: English

Abstract: Oryzanol is a class of nonsaponifiable lipids of rice bran oil (RBO). More specifically, oryzanol is a group of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohol and plant sterols. In experiment 1, the mechanisms of the cholesterol-lowering action of oryzanol were investigated in 32 hamsters made hypercholesterolemic by feeding chow based diets containing 5% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol with or without 1% oryzanol for 7 wk. Relative to the control animals, oryzanol treatment resulted in a significant reduction in plasma total cholesterol (TC) (28%, P < 0.01) and the sum of IDL-C, LDL-C, and VLDL-C (NON-HDL-C) (34%, P < 0.01). In addition, the oryzanol-treated animals also exhibited a 25% reduction in percent cholesterol absorption vs. control animals. Endogenous cholesterol synthesis, as measured by the liver and intestinal HMG-CoA reductase activities, showed no difference between the two groups. To determine whether a lower dose of oryzanol was also efficacious and to measure aortic fatty streaks, 19 hamsters in experiment 2 were divided into two groups and fed for 10 wk chow-based diets containing 0.05% cholesterol and10% coconut oil (w/w) (control) and the control diet plus 0.5% oryzanol (oryzanol). Relative to the control, oryzanol-treated hamsters had reduced plasma TC (44%, P < 0.001), NON-HDL-C (57%, P < 0.01), and triglyceride (TG) (46%, P < 0.05) concentrations. Despite a 12% decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.01), the oryzanol-treated animals maintained a more optimum NON-HDL-C/HDL-C profile (1.1 +/-0.4) than the control (2.5 +/- 1.4; P < 0.0075). Aortic fatty streak formation, so defined by the degree of accumulation of Oil Red O-stained macrophage-derived foam cells, was reduced 67% (P < 0.01) in the oryzanol-treated animals. From these studies, it is concluded that a constituent of the nonsaponifiable lipids of RBO, oryzanol, is at least partially responsible for the cholesterol-lowering action of RBO. In addition, the cholesterol-lowering action of oryzanol was associated with significant reductions in aortic fatty streak formation.

Author(s): Sugano M; Tsuji E

Title: Rice bran oil and cholesterol metabolism

Source: JOURNAL OF NUTRITION 1997, Vol 127, Iss 3, p S521-S524

Language: English

Abstract: A range of human and animal studies have shown that rice bran oil (RBO) is an edible oil of preference for improving serum cholesterol levels and lipoprotein profiles with similarity to the more commonly used vegetable oils such as com oil and safflower oil. Of particular interest is the observation that blending RBO with safflower oil at a definite proportion (7:3, wt/wt) magnifies the hypo-cholesterolemic efficacy, compared with the effect of each oil alone. Although the mechanism underlying this effect is not apparent at present, the blending may have a practical significance. The blending effect was reproduced in rats fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, and there was also a decrease in liver cholesterol. The occurrence of peculiar components such as gamma-oryzanol and tocotrienols could be responsible for the hypocholesterolemic effect of RBO.

Author(s): Kahlon TS; Chow FI; Chiu MM; Hudson CA ; Sayre RN

Title: Cholesterol-lowering by rice bran and rice bran oil unsaponifiable matter in hamsters

Source: CEREAL CHEMISTRY 1996, Vol 73, Iss 1, pp 69-74

Language: English

Abstract: Unsaponfiable matter (U) was prepared from both raw and extrusion stabilized (130 degrees C) rice bran and tested for cholesterol-lowering activity in hamsters by addition to diets containing cellulose, raw rice bran, or stabilized rice bran at either the level found in the rice bran diet (0.4%,1X) or twice that level (2X). All diets contained 0.3% cholesterol,10% total dietary fiber,10.1% fat, and 3% N (same plant-to-animal N ratio). After 21 days, plasma cholesterol was significantly reduced by rice bran diets containing added U compared to the cellulose control diet, while the high density lipoprotein cholesterol -to-low density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio remained unchanged in all treatment groups. Liver cholesterol was significantly reduced by all rice bran-containing diets and with cellulose diets containing 2X added U when compared to the control diet. Rice bran diets plus added U resulted in cholesterol values lower than cellulose diets containing the same level of U. Stabilization of rice bran did not appear to affect the plasma and liver cholesterol responses to the unsaponifiable matter prepared from the extracted oil. There appears to be a dose response to rice bran unsaponifiable matter in plasma and liver cholesterol reductions. After 2 weeks, fecal fat and neutral sterol excretion were significantly greater with all treatment diets compared to the control diet. Fecal fat was negatively correlated with liver as well as plasma cholesterol (r = -0.97, P less than or equal to 0.0001 and -0.91, P less than or equal to 0.0006, respectively). Under the conditions of this study, cholesterol-lowering activity of rice bran is present in its unsaponifiable matter in addition to other components. Increased fecal excretion of fat and neutral sterols appears to be a possible mechanism for cholesterol-lowering by rice bran.

Author(s): Huang D, Ou B, Hampsch-Woodill M, Flanagan JA, Deemer EK.

Title: Development and validation of oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay for lipophilic antioxidants using randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin as the solubility enhancer.

Source: Journal Agricultural and Chemistry, 2002, 50 (7), pp. 1815-1821

Language: English

Abstract: Brunswick Laboratories, 6 Thacher Lane, Wareham , Massachusetts 02571 , USA . We recently reported the improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay using fluorescein (FL) as the fluorescent probe. The current ORAC(FL) assay is limited in hydrophilic antioxidant due to the aqueous environment of the assay. Lipophilic antioxidants mainly include the vitamin E family and carotenoids, which play a critical role in biological defense systems. In this paper, we expanded the current ORAC(FL) assay to lipophilic antioxidants. Randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RMCD) was introduced as the water solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. Seven percent RMCD (w/v) in a 50% acetone-H(2)O mixture was found to sufficiently solubilize vitamin E compounds and other lipophilic phenolic antioxidants in 75 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This newly developed ORAC assay (abbbreviated ORAC(FL-LIPO) was validated through linearity, precision, accuracy, and ruggedness. The validation results demonstrate that the ORAC(FL-LIPO) assay is reliable and robust. For the first time, by using 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-carboxylic acid as a standard (1.0), the ORAC values of alpha-tocopherol, (+)-gamma-tocopherol, (+)-delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol acetate, tocotrienols, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, and gamma-oryzanol were determined to be 0.5 +/- 0.02, 0.74 +/- 0.03, 1.36 +/- 0.14, 0.00, 0.91 +/- 0.04, 0.16 +/- 0.01, and 3.00 +/- 0.26, respectively. The structural information of oxidized alpha-tocopherol obtained by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry reveals that the mechanism for the reaction between the vitamin E and the peroxyl radical follows the hydrogen atom transfer mechanism, which is in agreement with the notion that vitamin E is the chain-breaking antioxidant.

Author(s): Packer L, Weber SU,Rimbach G.

Title: Molecular aspects of alpha-tocotrienol antioxidant action and cell signalling.

Source: The Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, Iss. 2, p. 369-73.

Abstract: Packer L.et al. described antioxidant activity.Vitamin E was the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant. Although the antioxidant activity of tocotrienols is higher than that of tocopherols, tocotrienols have a lower bioavailability after oral ingestion. Tocotrienols penetrate rapidly through skin and efficiently combat oxidative stress induced by UV or ozone. Tocotrienols have beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases both by inhibiting LDL oxidation and by down-regulating 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A(HMG CoA) reductase, a key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway.

Author(s): Gen Y., Tsutomu K., Masohiko A., Makoto T., Tomio Y., Shuji T., Masahide I., Hiroshi H., Shigeaki B.

Title: Effects of gamma-oryzanol on hyperlipidemic subjects

Source: Current therapeutic, Vol. 4, No. 4, april, 1989

Abstract: Gen Y. et al. studied on the hypercholesterolemic effect of gamma-oryzanol which was investigated in 67 patients with hyperlipidemia. Three milligrams of gamma-oryzanol were administered daily, for 3 months. Plasma cholesterol and plasma triglyceride levels decreased significantly from the second month and after three months, respectively. High-density lipoprotein(HDL)-cholesterol was also significantly elevated after three months. The reduction in plasma-cholesterol was attributable to the decrease in low-density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol. Together with a long-term history of clinical use, this indicates the potential use of this drug as a treatment of first choice for mild hypercholesterolemic.

Author(s): Tong W., Kevin B.H., Robert M

Title: Antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol and other phytosterol conjugates

Source: JAOCS, Vol.79, No.12, 2002

Abstract: Tong W. et al. studied on antioxidant activity of phytosterols, oryzanol, ferulic acid ester of sterols, corn fiber oil and rice bran oil. At low concentration, these materials (phytosterols, oryzanol, ferrulic acid ester of sterols) did not improve the oxidative stability of the oil. The oxidative stability of oil was significantly affected by type of compounds tested and other concentration. Rice bran oil had significantly better antioxidant activity than the other. Viscosity of the oil was also significantly affected by type of the compounds. Rice bran oil was the most effective agent in preventing polymerization, and its activity increased dramatically with an initial increase in concentration but tended to level off an higher concentration. This experiment also suggest that the good antioxidant and antipolymerization of rice bran oil may not be due to is oryzanol content alone but to other minor lipid components, such as avenasterols. Rice bran oil showed very good antioxidant and antipolymerization ativity.

Author(s): Caudia Juliano, Massima Cossee, Maria Cristina, Luisella Pia

Title: Antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol mechanism of action and its effect on oxidative stability of pharmaceutical

Source: International Journal of pharmaceutics, Vol.299, Issue 1-2, 11August 2005, 146-154.

Abstract: Claudia et al. studied in antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol. In this research, gamma-oryzanol was extracted from rice bran oil. The molecular mechanism(s) of antioxidant activity of gamma-oryzanol by utilising different in vitro were investigated, such as scavenging at stable DPPH radical, OH radical and O2 radicals scavenging, and azocompound AMVN-initiated lipid peroxidation. The effect of scavenging on the oxidative stability of vegetable oils of pharmaceutical and cosmetic was evaluated in a oxidation accelerate test and compared with the effect of BHA and BHT. It was found that gamma-oryzanol is able to prevent AMVN-triggered lipoperoxidation. Moreover, when added to oil at concentration ranging between 2.5 and 10 mmol/kg, gamma-oryzanol shows a dose-dependant increase of induction time of oil, gamma-oryzanol improved the oxidative stability of oil.

Author(s): Mohammad Minhajuddin, Zafarul H. Beg, Jahangir Iqbal

Title: Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats

Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43, 2005, 747-753

Abstract: Mohammad et al. studied on hypolipidemic and antioxidant effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) isolated from rice bran oil on experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemic rats were supplemented with different doses of TRF of one week. It was found that TRF supplementation decreased the lipid parameters with the optimum effect at a dose of 8 mg TRF /kg/day. HMG-CoA reductas activity, TBARS and conjugated dienes decreased significantly during the TRF treatment. These results suggest that TRF supplementation has health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions that include various atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemic.

Author(s): Baliarsingh S, Beg ZN, Ahmad J

Title: The therapeutic impacts of tocotrienols in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia

Source: Atherosclerosis, 2005, October; 182(2) : 867-74

Abstract: Baliarsingh S et al. investigated the theropeutic impacts of tocotrienols on serum and lipoprotein lipid levels in type 2 diabetic patients. Tocotrienol rich fraction(TRF) mediated decrease on elevated blood glucose and glucated hemoglobin A(1C)(HbA(1C)) in diabetic rats. They investigated effect of TRF on these parameters. After 60 days of TRF treatment, subjects showed an average decline of 20, 30 and 42% in serum total lipids, TC and LDL-C, respectively. In conclusion, daily intake of dietary TRF by type 2 diabetics will be useful in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis.

Author(s): Most MM., Tulley R., Morales S., Lefevre M.

Title: Rice bran oil, not fiber, lower cholesterol in humans

Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 81, No.1, 64-68, January 2005

Abstract: Most MM studied to assess the effects of defatted rice bran and rice bran oil in an average American diet on blood lipid in moderately hypercholesterolemic persons. It was found that defatted rice bran did not lower lipid concentrations. Total cholesterol was significantly lower with comsumption of the diet containing rice bran oil than with consumption of the control diet. The consumption of the rice bran oil diet, LDL cholesterol decreased by 7%, whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. In conclusion, rice bran oil, not fiber, lowers cholesterol in healthy, moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. There were no substantial differences in the fatty acid composition of the diets; therefore, the reduction of cholesterol was due to other components present in the rice bran oil, such as unsaponifiable compounds.

Author(s): Murase Y., Ishima H

Title: Clinical studies of oral administration of gamma-oryzanol on climacteric complaints and its syndrome

Source: Obstetrical and gynecological practice, 1963; 12: 147-9.

Abstract: Murase Y and Ishima H studies on effect of gamma-oryzanol for menopause. In this research gave 13 women who had hysterectomies, also called surgical menopouse, 100 mg gamma-oryzanol three daily for 38 days. It was found that it halved menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes in more than 67 percent of the women.


Dunford, N.T. Health Benefits and Processing of Lipid-Based Nutritionals. 2001. Food Technol. 55 (11): 38-44.

Eitenmiller, R. R. 1997. Vitamin E Content of Fats and Oils: Nutritional Implications. Food Technol. 51(5): 78-81.

Fry, A.C., E. Bonner, D.L. Lewis, R.L. Johnson, M.H. Stone, and W.J. Kraemer. 1997. The Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol Supplementation During Resistance Exercise Training. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 7(4): 318-329.

Gould, M.N., J.D. Haag, W.S. Kennan, et al. 1991. A Comparison of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol for the Chemoprevention of Chemically Induced Rat Mammary Tumors. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1068S.

Haque, M.H., and A.U. Haque. 1999. Compositions for the Prevention and Treatment of Warts, Skin Blemishes and Other Viral-Induced Tumors. U.S. Patent No. 05945116.

Hata, A., S. Koga, H. Shigematsu, S. Kato, et al. 1981. Study on Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Hyperlipemia – Multicenter Cooperative Pilot Study for Dosage Finding. Geriat. Med. 19: 1813-1840.

Hiramitsu, T. and D. Armstrong. 1991. Preventive Effect of Antioxidants on Lipid Peroxidation in the Retina. Ophthalmic Res. 23: 196-203.

Hirose, M., K. Ozaki, K. Takaba, L. Fukushima, T. Shirai, and N. Ito. 1991. Modifying Effects of the Naturally Occurring Antioxidants g-Oryzanol, Phytic Acid, Tannic Acid, and n-Tritriacontane-16, 18-Dione in a Rat Wide-Spectrum Organ Carcinogenesis Model. Carcinogenesis 12(10): 1917-1921.

Ichimaru, Y., M. Moriyama, M. Ichimaru, and Y. Gomita. 1984. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Gastric Lesions and Small Intestinal Propulsive Activity in Mice. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 84(6): 537-542.

Imai, Y., T. Ogawa, C. Tsurmi, M. Kitagawa, and H. Tanaka. 1994. Food Additive and Use Thereof. PCT Int’l. Patent Application WO 94/07378A1.

Itaya, K. and J. Kiyonaga. 1976. Studies of Gamma-Oryzanol (1). Effects on Stress- Induced Ulcer. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 72(4): 475-481.

Itaya, K., J. Kiyonaga, and M. Ishikawa. 1976. Studies of Gamma-Oryzanol (2). The Antiulcerogenic Action. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 72(8): 1001-1011.

Kahlon, T.S., and F.I. Chow. 1997. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Oat, Rice, and Barley Dietary Fibers and Fractions. Cereal Foods World 42(2): 86-92.

Kahlon, T.S., F.I. Chow, M.M. Chiu, C.A. Hudson and R.N. Sayre. 1996.
Cholesterol-Lowering by Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil Unsaponifiable Matter in Hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 73(1): 69-74.

Kahlon, T.S., R.M. Saunders, R.N. Sayre, and F.I Chow. 1992b. Cholesterol-
Lowering Effects of Rice Bran and Rice Bran Oil Fractions in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters. Cereal Chemistry 69: 485-489.

Kim, J.S., J.S. Godber, J.M. King, W. Prinyawiwatkul, and H.Y. Chung. 2000. Vitamin E Vitamers and g-Oryzanol from Rice Bran Inhibit the Formation of 7-Ketocholesterol in Aqueous Dispersion System. (51E-1). Book of Abstracts: IFT Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas. June 10-14.

Koba, K., J. W. Liu, E. Bobik, M, Sugano and Y. S. Huang. 2000. Cholesterol Supplementation Attenuates the Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Rice Bran Oil in Rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminology (Tokyo) 46(2): 58-64.

Lichenstein, A.H., L.M. Ausman, W. Carrasco, L.J. Gualtieri, J.L. Jenner, J.M. Ordovas, R.J. Nicolosi, B.R. Goldin, and E.J. Schaefer. 1994. Rice Bran Oil Consumption and Plasma Lipid Levels in Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Humans. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14(4): 549-556.

Ling, W.H., and P.J.H. Jones. 1995. Minireview Dietary Phytosterols: A Review of Metabolism, Benefits and Side Effects. Life Sci. 57: 195-206.

Mizuta, K., H. Kaneta, and K. Itaya. 1978. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Gastric Secretions in Rats (Author’s Tranl). Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 74(2): 285-295.

Nakayama, S., A. Manabe, J. Suzuki, K. Sakamoto, and T. Inagake. 1987. Comparative Effects of Two Forms of g-Oryzanol in Different Sterol Compositions on Hyperlipidemia Induced by Cholesterol Diet in Rats. Japan Journal of Pharmacology 44(2): 135-143.

Nesaretnam, K., R. Stephen, R. Dils, and P. Darbre. 1998. Tocotrienols Inhibit the Growth of Human Breast Cancer Cells Irrespective of Estrogen Receptor Status. Lipids 33: 461-469.

Nicolosi, R.J. 1991. Health Benefits Attributed to Derivatives of Rice Bran. Cereal Foods World 36(8): 720.

Nicolosi, R.J., L.M. Ausman, and D.M. Hegsted. 1991. Rice Bran Oil Lowers
Serum Total and Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Apo B Levels in Nonhuman Primates. Atherosclerosis 88: 133-142.

Nicolosi, R.J., and S. Liang. 1991. Comparative Effects of Rice Bran Oil, Soybean Oil and Coconut Oil on Lipoprotein Levels, Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidizability and Fatty Streak Formulation in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters. Arteriosclerosis 11: 1603a.

Papas, A. and A. Moore. 1998. Tocotrienols: A New Dietary Supplement. (NPT1-9). Book of Abstracts: IFT Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia. June 20-24.

Qureshi, A.A., N. Qureshi, J.O. Hasler-Rapacz, F.E. Weber, V. Chaudhary, T.D. Crenshaw, A. Gapor, A.S.H Ong, Y.H. Chong, D. Peterson and J. Rapacz. 1991. Dietary Tocotrienols Reduce Concentrations of Plasma Cholesterol, Apolipoprotein B. Thromboxane B2, and Platelet Factor 4 in Pigs with Inherited Hyperlipidemia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1042S-1046S.

Quershi, A.A., N. Quershi, J.J.K. Wright, Z. Shen, A. Kramer, A. Gapor, Y.H. Chong, G. DeWitt, A.S.H. Ong, D.M. Peterson, and B.A. Bradlow. 1991. Lowering of Serum Cholesterol in Hypercholesterolemic Humans by Tocotrienols (palmvitee). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 53: 1021S-1026.

Quershi, A.A., W.A. Salser, R. Parmer, and E.E. Emerson. 2001. Novel Tocotrienols of Rice Bran Inhibit Atherosclerotic Lesions in C57BL/6 ApoE-Deficient Mice. J. of Nutrition 131(10): 2606-2618.

Raghuram, T.C., U.B. Rao, and C. Rukmini. 1989. Studies on Hypolipidemic Effects of Dietary Rice Bran Oil in Human Subjects. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 39: 889.

Rogers, E.J., S.M. Rice, R.J. Nicolosi, D.R. Carpenter, C.A. McClelland, and L.J. Romanczyk, Jr. 1993. Identification and Quantitation of g-Oryzanol Components and Simultaneous Assessment of Tocols in Rice Bran Oil. J. AOCS 70(3): 301-307.

Rong, N., L.M. Ausman, and R.J. Nicolosi. 1997. Oryzanol Decreases Cholesterol Absorption and Aortic Fatty Steaks in Hamsters. Lipids 32(3): 303-309.

Rukmini, C. 1988. Chemical, Nutritional, and Toxicological Studies of Rice Bran Oil. Food Chemistry 30: 257-268.

Rukmini, C. and T. C. Raghuram. 1991. Nutritional and Biochemical Aspects of the Hypolipidemic Action of Rice Bran Oil: A Review. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 10(6): 593-601.

Sasaki, J., Y. Takada, K. Handa, M. Kusuda, Y. Tanabe, A. Matsunaga, and K. Arakawa. 1990. Effects of Gamma-Oryzanol on Serum Lipids and Apolipoproteins in Dyslipidemic Schizophrenics Receiving Major Tranquilizers. Clinical Therapeutics 12(3): 263-268.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1988. Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Oryzanol in Rats. Nutr. Rep. Intl. 38(5): 927-935.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1989. Studies on Hypocholesterolemic Activity of Rice Bran Oil. Atherosclerosis 78: 219-223.

Seetharamaiah, G.S. and N. Chandrasekhara. 1990. Effect of Oryzanol on Cholesterol Absorption and Biliary and Fecal Bile Acids in Rats. Indian J. Med. Res. 92: 471-475.

Seetharamaiah, G.S., T.P. Krishnakantha, and N. Chandrasekhara. 1990. Influence of Oryzanol on Platelet Aggregation in Rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 36(3): 291-297.

Sharma, R.D., and C. Rukmini. 1986. Rice Bran Oil and Hypocholesterolemia in Rats. Lipids 21: 715-717.

Sugano, M., and E. Tsuji. 1997. Rice Bran Oil and Cholesterol Metabolism. Journal of Nutrition 127(3): 521S-524S.

Tamagawa, M., Y. Otaki, T. Takahashi, T. Otaka, S. Kimura, and T. Miwa. 1992. Carcinogenicity Study of g-Oryzanol in B6C3F1 Mice. Food & Chemical Toxicology 30(1): 49-56.

Tamagawa, M., Y. Shimizu, T. Takahashi, T. Otaka, S. Kimura, H. Kadowaki, F. Uda, and T. Miwa. 1992. Carcinogenicity Study of g-Oryzanol in F344 Rats. Food & Chemical Toxicology 30(1): 41-48.

Taylor, J.B., T.M. Richard, C.L. Wilhelm, M.M. Chrysam, M. Otterburn, and G.A. Leveille. 1996. Rice Bran Oil Antioxidant. U.S. Patent No. 5,552,167.

Tomeo, A.C., M. Geller, T.R. Watkins, A. Gapor and M.L. Bierenbaum. 1995. Antioxidant Effects of Tocotrienols in Patients with Hyperlipidemia and Carotid Stenosis. Lipids 30(12): 1179-1183.

Vissers, M.N., P.L. Zock, G.W. Meijer, and M.B. Katan. 2000. Effect of Plant Sterols from Rice Bran Oil and Triterpene Alcohols from Sheanut Oil on Serum Lipoprotein Concentrations in Humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 72: 1510-1515.

Wheeler, K.B. and K.A. Garleb. 1991. g-Oryzanol-Plant Sterol Supplementation: Metabolic, Endocrine, and Physiologic Effects. Int’l. J. Sport Nutr. 1: 170-177.

Yoshino, G. et al. 1989. Effects of Gamma Oryzanol on Hyperlipidemic Subjects. Current Therapeutic Res. 45(4): 543-552.

 

 


 


View My Stats