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Palladium - orale toxische bron ?


Bijna iedereen is wel bekend met de discussie rondom amalgaam maar slechts weinigen weten dat er nog een veel gebruikt metaal is dat nog toxischer is dan het kwik in amalgaam.

Met name in goedkopere kronen een veel gebruikte legering. Er is weinig over bekend maar ik zal wat bronnen in kaart brengen. Er zijn wel palladium vrije kronen te krijgen (vaak duurder) maar daar moet je wel specifiek om vragen en misschien zelf aan bijbetalen maar dat is je eigen persoonlijke keuze.

Af en toe denk ik nog wel eens aan dat kunstgebit van mijn opa en oma, was wel lastiger maar misschien stuk gezonder en minder toxisch als de moderne oplossingen. Ieder geval geen toxische bronnen in de buurt van je ogen en hersenen.

Uit een Amerikaanse studie valt wel te lezen dat de mensen die allergisch zijn voor palladium die bijna altijd ook zijn voor nikkel.

Er is zeer weinig online informatie over palladium te vinden dus als je nog goede bronnen ontdekt mail me ze even.....

Ron

Nikkel allergie pagina:


Het verhaal van Guus

Palladium (Pd) wordt gebruikt in metaallegeringen met o.a. goud en
zilver. Palladium wordt veel door tandartsen gebruikt in kronen,
kroonstiften(wortelstiften) en bruggen. Palladium is een toxisch(giftig)
materiaal, het kan de stofwisseling ontregelen en DNA beschadigen. Het
is vergelijkbaar met het beruchte amalgaam(kwik) in de vullingen van
tanden en kiezen. Palladium wordt nog steeds door Nederlandse tandartsen
gebruikt. Vooral als Palladium in het bovengebit is gebruikt in kronen
en kroonstiften bestaat de kans op metaalvergiftiging!

Het risico hierop bestaat vooral als de tandarts na plaatsing van
Palladium kronen door die kronen een zenuwbehandeling uitvoert.
Voor de plaatsing van een dergelijk kroonstift moet de tandarts namelijk
het zenuwkanaal uitboren, hij doet dit dan door de palladium kroon. Door
het boren bestaat risico dat de tandarts in de kaakholte terecht. De
kans bestaat namelijk dat de tandarts ongemerkt te ver boort en in de
kaakholte terechtkomt of dat hij het zenuwkanaal bij de wortelpunt niet
goed afsluit. Als in de kaakholte Palladiummateriaal terecht komt
ontstaat er een slijmvliesreactie- of ontsteking en in beide gevallen
vrijwel zeker een ernstige palladiumallergie en palladiumvergiftiging.
Deze site gaat over Palladium maar de dezelfde waarschuwing geldt ook
amalgaam(kwik) die kan op dezelfde manier in de kaakholte terecht komen
bij een zenuwbehandeling door een amalgaam gevulde kies!

www.gumor.com/hpnov2002/start.html


Palladium, toxischer dan amalgaam

Tegenwoordig zit in bijna elke opbaklegering palladium. Het percentage kan varieren van 2 tot 50%. Nu deze legeringen een aantal jaren op de markt zijn blijken er inderdaad problemen te ontstaan. Iets wat van te voren door homeopathen reeds voorspeld was.

Het blijkt zelfs, dat palladium een nog toxischere stof is als mercurius. De nieuwste chemokuren bevatten palladium!! Het wordt ook in catalisatoren in auto's gebruikt!!

http://www.nvbt.nl/hot-metalen.html#pal

 

Voorbeeld van een chemotherapie met palladium

Prostate Cancer - Brachytherapy with Palladium-103 Better Than or Equal to Prostatectomy

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=20904


Materiaalanalyse in het kader van de diagnostiek van toxische en allergische reacties

Er zijn weinig in vivo-onderzoeken gepubliceerd waarin systemische effecten van in de tandheelkunde toegepaste metalen worden beschreven. Wel is met in vitro-onderzoeken aangetoond dat vanuit elke metaal bevattende tandheelkundige restauratie, ionen in oplossing gaan. Deze kunnen zich niet alleen in de mond, maar ook verder in het lichaam verspreiden en zo een lichaamsreactie opwekken. Hierbij kan men onderscheid maken tussen frequent voorkomende toxische en zeldzaam voorkomende allergische reacties. Nikkel en palladium worden daarbij als meest allergene elementen herkend. De in deze bijdrage beschreven methode voor metaaldiagnose kan artsen en tandartsen meer inzicht verschaffen in de relatie tussen de samenstelling van tandheelkundige restauratiematerialen en hun gezondheidseffecten.

http://www.ntvt.nl/artikel/?artikel=111&rubriek=1


Allergisch voor metalen in de mond

De Amsterdamse tandarts-onderzoeker signaleert een groeiend besef dat metalen in het lichaam bij sommige mensen ongewenste bijwerkingen kunnen hebben. Niet alleen metalen toegepast in tandheelkundige bruggen en kronen, maar ook in kunstknieŽn en -heupen, stents in kransslagaderen, roestvast stalen hechtmateriaal bij borstkasoperaties en metalen clips op bloedvaten kunnen allergische reacties veroorzaken

http://www.refdag.nl/artikel/1234869/
Allergisch+voor+metalen+in+de+mond.html


Kwaliteit van restauratiematerialen vanuit een gezondheidsperspectief belicht

Het is van groot belang dat wij ons realiseren dat vrijwel alle metalen die in de tandheelkunde worden toegepast, potentieel allergeen, cytotoxisch en/of neurotoxisch zijn. Wanneer men onderzoek doet naar effecten van blootstelling aan metalen op het menselijk lichaam, lijkt de kans dus groter dat men vanuit de tandheelkundige blootstelling effecten zal vinden dan vanuit andere bronnen. Over het feit dat metalen afkomstig uit medische hulpmiddelen schadelijke effecten op de gezondheid kunnen hebben, bestaat eigenlijk geen discussie. Zo zijn er in de wetenschappelijke literatuur verschillende allergische reacties op roestvaststalen medische hulpmiddelen (hartstents, deep-brain-stimulators, aneurysma-clips etc.) beschreven.

http://www.paotkun.nl/uploadedFiles/feilzer%
20umcn(1).pdf#search=%22palladium%20tandarts%22


World Health Organisation - palladium

Palladium is a steel-white, ductile metallic element resembling and occurring with the other platinum group metals and nickel. Palladium and its alloys are used in the (petro)chemical and the automotive industries as catalysts, in dentistry, and in electronics and the electrical industry. This book evaluates the risks to human health and the environment posed by exposures to palladium. The general population is primarily exposed to palladium through dental alloys or jewellery. There were case reports referring to palladium sensitivity associated with exposure to palladium-containing dental restorations, the symptoms being contact dermatitis, stomatitis or mucositis and oral lichen planus. Palladium ions are considered to be highly toxic to aquatic organisms. However, due to palladium's high economic value, emissions of palladium from point sources are currently minimal. Increased use of catalytic converters may increase palladium emissions from diffuse sources. It was recommended that these emissions should be controlled to be as low as possible.

http://www.who.int/bookorders/anglais/detart1.jsp
?sesslan=1&codlan=1&codcol=16&codcch=226

 

Uitgebreid rapport over palladium door Fraunhofer Instituut voor
de WHO

Since palladium-containing dental alloys have been identified as
a possible source of sensitization, protection of the public from related
adverse effects may be achieved either by limiting the use of certain
alloys or by using alloys with minimal release of palladium.
Dentists should be informed of the composition of alloys and of
the possible sensitization effects of palladium.

Patients should be informed about the composition of dental
alloys. Patients who have an allergy to nickel should be informed that
the use of palladium-containing dental materials may cause palladium
allergy, but that this risk appears to be low, and the potential for this
reaction is likely to vary with the release of palladium ions from the
material. In general, in patients who are sensitive to palladium, palladium-
containing materials should not be used, although palladium has
been used without allergic effects in some of these individuals.

http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/ehc/en/ehc226.pdf


German Health Ministry on Palladium Toxicity

The German Health Ministry has been warning dentists since 1993 not to use palladium-copper alloys any longer.

...especially people who have nickel allergies react to palladium. Adding dental metals like palladium heightens the risk of illness in some people.

Palladium/Copper alloys contain up to 10% indium and can cause severe periodontal disease.

Contense of Palladium/Copper alloys can be up to 10% Indium, Gallium, Zink, Tin, Cobalt.

In Switzerland Palladium dental alloys have been banned.

http://www.holisticmed.com/dental/palladium2.html


Biological effects of palladium and risk of using palladium in dental casting alloys.

Wataha JC, Hanks CT.

Medical College of Georgia School of Dentistry, Augusta, USA.

In dentistry, palladium is a very common component of dental casting alloys of all types, and its use has increased over the past several decades in response to the increased cost of gold. However, there have been recent controversies, particularly in Germany, over possible adverse biological effects of using palladium in dental alloys. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to review the known biological effects of palladium and the likelihood that these effects can be caused by dental alloys which contain palladium. In an ionic form and at sufficiently high concentrations, palladium has toxic and allergic effects on biological systems. Palladium allergy almost always occurs in individuals who are sensitive to nickel. The carcinogenic potential of the palladium ion is still unclear, although there is some evidence that it is capable of acting as a mutagen. However, there are no well documented cases of adverse biological reactions to palladium in the metallic state. Furthermore, in spite of the potential adverse biological effects of palladium ions, the risk of using palladium in dental casting alloys appears to be extremely low because of the low dissolution rate of palladium ions from these alloys.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=
Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8736443&dopt=Abstract


Contact stomatitis due to palladium in dental alloys: a clinical report.

Garau V, Masala MG, Cortis MC, Pittau R.
School of Dentistry, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy. garauva@yahoo.it

A patient was treated with a maxillary gold-palladium alloy fixed partial denture (FPD). Shortly after placement, the patient contracted severe contact mucositis. Patch-testing revealed a positive reaction to palladium chloride (PdCl 2 , 1% petrolatum) but not to any other component of the prosthesis. After removal of the FPD and placement of a provisional acrylic resin restoration, all signs and symptoms disappeared. A definitive metal-ceramic (titanium-porcelain) prosthesis was placed, and no signs of lesions appeared. This clinical report demonstrates that titanium may be a satisfactory alternative for patients who require prostheses and are sensitive to other metals.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd
=Retrieve&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=15798680&query_hl=2&
itool=pubmed_DocSum


Immunological studies on the peripheral blood mononuclear cells in metal allergy patients

Nokiba K. Fixed Prosthodontics, Department of Restorative Sciences, Division of Oral Health Sciences, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University.

Recently, the number of patients with dental metal allergy has risen significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical availability of the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) using metal reagents as a method for diagnosing metal allergy. In vitro, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 patients with metal allergy and five healthy volunteers were examined by LST using 12 metal reagents (HAuCl4, PdCl2, NiSO4, CoCl2, CuSO4, SnCl4, K2Cr2O7, MoCl5, H2PtCl6, IrCl4, AgBr, FeCl3). To define metal allergy, a patch test (PT) was performed with metal reagents, and then the components of dental alloys in their mouth were analyzed. The expressions of CD 4, CD 8, CD 25, and CLA of metal-specific T cells were determined by flow cytometric analysis (FACS). PBMC from patients with positive PT showed LST positive for nickel sulfate (Ni), gold chloride (Au), palladium chloride (Pd) and cobalt chloride (Co). The results of LST in other metals indicated negative in spite of the positive result by PT. FACS results indicated the increase of CD 4 + T/CD 8 + alpha 4 + T cells, CD 4 + T/CD 8 + CLA+ T cells by stimulation with metal reagent. Thus, metal-specific T cells were stimulated in PT positive patients, so LST could be a more specific test for diagnosing dental metal allergy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve
&dopt=AbstractPlus&list_uids=16107059&query_hl=2&itool=pubmed_DocSum


Studies on the allergenic potential of palladium alloys

Augthun M, Lichtenstein M, Kammerer G.
Klinik fur Zahnarztliche Prothetik der Medizinischen Fakultat der TWTH Aachen.

Epicutaneous tests with test solutions of the European standard series and palladium chloride (1%) were performed in 486 patients of the University Hospital for Dermatology in Aachen. 17.9% of the patients exhibited Ni, 8.6% Co, 7.4% Pd and 4.1% Cr allergy. In 18 of 36 patients with a positive patch test reaction a further epicutaneous and epimucosal testing with metallic plates of pure palladium and a palladium alloy was performed. In 34 cases a positive skin reaction to palladium chloride was combined with a positive skin reaction to nickel sulphate. Only in one case was it possible to demonstrate an allergic reaction to a palladium metallic plate, which was tested additionally in artificial saliva. The results show that a dental alloy envisaged for use should be tested in an epicutaneous test, if the patient shows a positive reaction to the metallic salt solution. In case of positive patch tests to nickel sulphate, dental palladium alloys should not be used as an alternative unless sensitivity to palladium has been tested.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus&db=
pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=2269177


Contact allergies to nickel sulfate, gold sodium thiosulfate and palladium chloride in patients claiming side-effects from dental alloy components.

Marcusson JA. Department of Dermatology, Huddinge University Hospital, Sweden.

397 patients claiming various subjective symptoms related to dental restoration materials have been tested for the presence of metal allergy. The resultant data have been compared with the corresponding allergies of eczematous patients. The frequency difference of metal allergy in the dental group is statistically significant or close to significance for nickel sulfate, potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, palladium chloride and gold sodium thiosulfate. The findings suggest that the dental patient group represents a subgroup with a high frequency of metal allergy.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?itool=abstractplus
&db=pubmed&cmd=Retrieve&dopt=abstractplus&list_uids=8807223


Palladium – A review of exposure and effects to human health

Authors: Kielhorn J.1; Melber C.2; Keller D.2; Mangelsdorf I.1

Source: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, Volume 205, Number 6, October 2002, pp. 417-432(16)

Palladium is a metal the output and use of which has more than doubled in the past ten years. It is used in dental appliances, chemical catalysts, electrical appliances and jewellery, but the greatest increase in Pd demand has been in automotive emission control catalysts. Studies on Pd concentrations in ancient ice and recent snow samples reflect the increase in mining, smelting and use of palladium in the last decades. Increases of palladium in the environment have been shown in air and dust samples. There is no data as yet available to assess the effect of this exposure. A major source of health concern is the sensitization risk of Pd as very low doses are sufficient to cause allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. Persons with known nickel allergy may be especially susceptible. Workers occupationally exposed to Pd include miners, dental technicians and chemical workers. The latter are exposed mainly to Pd salts several of which may cause primary skin and eye irritations. It is advised that persons with known Pd allergy should not work with Pd compounds. The general population may come into contact with palladium mainly through mucosal contact with dental restorations and jewellery containing palladium and possibly via emissions from Pd catalysts. Protection of the public from related adverse effects may be achieved by the use of alloys with high corrosion stability and thus minimal release of palladium. In general, in dental patients who are sensitive to Pd, restorations using Pd-containing materials should not be used although Pd has been used without allergic effects in some of these individuals. Further, those patients who have an allergy to nickel should be informed that use of Pd-containing dental materials may cause Pd allergy, though this risk appears to be low.

http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/urban/441/2002/
00000205/00000006/art00180;jsessionid=1bdbvrtpw2wf8.alice


Exposure to toxic elements leads to worrying health problems in many parts of the world, including Europe.

A new, EU-funded research project, involving partners from all over the world, will study the health effects of long-term, low-level exposure to toxic metals. The research is clearly designed to make a difference as its results will be communicated to politicians, industry and other organisations involved in decision-making.

"We will assess the roles of the toxic metals as causes of important diseases. Also, by screening metals in the blood of women and children from different parts of Europe, we will monitor changes over time as well as geographical differences. This will enable us to make comparisons and to assess risks" says Staffan Skerfving, Professor at Lund University, Sweden, who is the co-ordinator of the research project. "For example, the health impacts of metals emitted from the exhaust systems of cars are something that we intend to home in on" he adds.

http://www.news-medical.net/?id=16339


Palladium by E. Blaurock-Busch, PhD

Since paladium is easily methylated, it is considered to be equally or possibly more dangerous to health than mercury, and the extensive use of palladium amalgams may indeed be a fool's choice. By exhanging gold with other metals such as nickel, copper, cobalt, gallium or silver, this replacement herapy may be more expensive healthwise. Dr. Karkalis is most concerned about the enzyme-blocking function of palladium.

http://mercuryexposure.org/index.php?article_id=230


Palladium – ein Schwermetall mit sensibilisierendem Potenzial

Human exposure levels are, however, only in the region of one nanogram per person per day. The general public can also come into contact with palladium as a component of alloys used in jewelry and dental fillings or dentures. The extent to which palladium is released from dental fillingsdepends on the type of alloy used and varies from individual to individual according to the state of their teeth and personal habits, such as chewing gum. Dental fillings are the most common cause of permanent problems with this metal. Depending on the palladium content and number of fillings, in the region of 1.5 to 15 Ķg per person per day are released.

How this affects human health has not been known up to now, since only fewdata are available. What is known, however, is the sensitizing potential of palladium ions: Only very small amounts are required to cause an allergic reaction in sensitive people. Those suffering from a nickel allergy are particularly susceptible. Use of alloys with a high anti-corrosion level and thus a minimal palladium secretion offer some protection. The WHO recommends instructing dentists throughout the world about the composition of the alloys and the possible effects of palladium sensitization. The dentists should then in turn inform their patients, particularly those who are already allergic to nickel, since there is a higher risk that they will develop a palladium allergy.

http://www.item.fraunhofer.de/english/media/
newsreports/june_2003/4.html


 

 

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