Neurofeedback is een moderne methode om
de hersenen te trainen. Via sensoren op het hoofd kan de trainer activiteiten in de
hersenfrequenties waarnemen. Afhankelijk van de klachten is er sprake van onder- of
overactiviteit. Bij stress vaak een overactiviteit in de bèta frequenties te zien, en bij
ADD of ADHD een overactiviteit in de theta frequenties. Door middel van beeld en geluid
geeft de trainer feedback aan de hersenen. Dat gebeurt, doordat de muziek die een cliënt
te horen krijgt kort onderbroken wordt. Het brein pakt deze signalen op en gaat hierdoor
zélf de overactiviteit verminderen. Daarmee verdwijnt het onnatuurlijke gedrag van de
hersenen en de daarmee gepaard gaande klachten. Als de hersenen eenmaal de natuurlijke,
gezonde staat ervaren, zullen zij de overactiviteit zelf blijven terugdringen. Het zo
natuurlijk mogelijk te laten functioneren van de hersenen heeft legio voordelen: rust,
zelfvertrouwen, concentratie, ontspanning, creativiteit en plezier zullen meer en meer
Meer info: http://www.neurofeedback-utrecht.nl/
De effectiviteit van
Neurofeedback is voor de volgende klachten geindiceerd:
- Concentratie-,leer-, en gedragsstoornissen
- Stress en Burn-out
- Post Traumatische Stress Stoornis (PTSS)
- Obsessief-Compulsieve Stoornis
- Lichte depressie
- Bulimia en Anorexia
- Chronische vermoeidheid
- Lichte hersenbeschadiging. Er zijn
aanwijzingen dat de symptomen van milde hersentrauma's, zoals CVA's,
- Niet Aangeboren Hersenletsel (NAH) en
epilepsie met Neurofeedback verlicht kunnen worden.
Alternatief voor Ritalin -
While Ritalin has been shown to be
effective, it also can cause troubling side effects. In Ben's case, his mother said, he
would bend over and run into people head-first. Piszczek, a registered nurse, decided to
try an alternative treatment for her son called EEG biofeedback Like Ritalin, biofeedback
is not without controversy. Also known as neurotherapy, biofeedback is practiced by
psychologists, physicians and others who help change brainwave frequencies with a computer
and an electroencephalogram - the same device hospitals use to identify abnormalities in
After 20 sessions with Wadsworth
psychologist Glen Martin, Ben has shown improvement that has stunned his parents and
teachers. He pays more attention to his parents and Ins five siblings than ever before.
Autisme en Neurofeedback
Research on EEG Neurofeedback for Autism
- Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorders
The purpose of this study was to
characterize, quantify and document efficacy of neurofeedback for individuals in the
Autism spectrum. Neurofeedback, a process of neuro-regulation based on operant
conditioning of EEG spectral features, has been proven to assist many with behaviors
similar to those seen in the autistic spectrum. This methodology has been used
successfully with those exhibiting ADHD behaviors, anxiety, sleep disorders, and
Preliminary work with individuals in the
autistic spectrum has shown promise. The neurofeedback protocol of augmenting specific
frequencies in the 4-20 Hz. region, while inhibiting excess amplitude in the lower and
higher-frequency regions, challenges the brain toward more optimal functioning in terms of
both physiological arousal generally, and emotional regulation specifically.
The study involved a comparison of 16
individuals trained with neurofeedback with 16 individuals who did not receive training,
but continued other ongoing therapies. Eighty-eight percent of those trained reduced their
levels of autistic symptoms within months, as assessed using the ATEC behavioral checklist
of the Autism Research Institute.The average reduction in symptoms severity was 26%
compared with a control group average of less than 5%. Before and after videos (Greenspan
method) were also used for comparison purposes.
There were significant improvements on
average in the areas of speech (30%), socialization (34%), sleep (29%), anxiety (29%),
tantrums (29%), and cognitive awareness (16%). When compared with other treatment
modalities using the Rimland Treatment Effectiveness Survey, neurofeedback is rated on a
par with occupational therapy, and is surpassed to date only by behavior modification and
speech therapies, even in this early-stage comparison.
Neurofeedback is a technique in which we
train the brain to help improve its ability to regulate all bodily functions and to take
care of itself. When the brain is not functioning well, evidence of this often shows up in
the EEG (Electroencephalogram). By challenging the brain, much as you challenge your body
in physical exercise, we can help your brain learn to function better.
A better functioning brain can improve
sleep patterns. When you sleep more efficiently, you are more alert during the day. It can
help with anxiety and depression, and with syndromes like migraine or chronic pain.
Secondly, it can be helpful in managing attention - how well you can persist even at a
boring task. Thirdly, it can help you manage the emotions. Emotions may feel like the real
you, but your brain has a lot to say about how you feel and react. If the emotions are out
of control, that's trainable. If they aren't there---as in lack of empathy, for
example---that, too, is trainable.
Finally, there are some specific issues
where the EEG neurofeedback training can be helpful, such as in cases of seizures,
traumatic brain injury, stroke, and autism. In these instances the training does not so
much get rid of the problem as it simply organizes the brain to function better in the
context of whatever injury or loss exists.
The Use of EEG Biofeedback to Treat
The results of this study supported
previous findings that EEG biofeedback can be used to treat attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In this study, five out of six subjects clearly benefited
from treatment. Othmer (1994) said that 20 EEG biofeedback sessions can successfully treat
approximately 30% of subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, but the
current study resulted in positive gains for at least 80% of the subjects.
Depressie bij alcoholisten
neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with
Saxby E, Peniston EG.
Biofeedback Center, Pacific Grove, CA
This was an experimental study of 14
alcoholic outpatients using the Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1991) brainwave treatment
protocol for alcohol abuse. After temperature biofeedback pretraining, experimental
subjects completed 20 40-minute sessions of alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training
(BWNT). Experimentally treated alcoholics with depressive syndrome showed sharp reductions
in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory). On the Millon Clinical
Multiaxial Inventory-I, the experimental subjects showed significant decreases on the BR
scores: schizoid, avoidant, dependent, histrionic, passive-aggression, schizotypal,
borderline, anxiety, somatoform, hypomanic, dysthmic, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychotic
thinking, and psychotic depression. Twenty-one-month follow-up data indicated sustained
prevention of relapse in alcoholics who completed BWNT.
PMID: 8801245 [PubMed - indexed for
EEG NeuroBioFeedback Treatment of
Patients with Brain Injury
Rima E. Laibow, MD, Albert N.
Stubblebine, MSc, Henry Sandground, Michel Bounias, DSc
Twenty-seven patients with brain injury
were treated by computer-assisted electroencephalographic NeuroBioFeedback (EEG-NBF). All
patients were medication-free during treatment.
Conclusions. NBF in patients with
brain injury results in beneficial physiological regulation in addition to initially
targeted improvements in brain functions. Symptom associations versus the success or
failure of EEG treatment and improvement rates reflected correction of symptoms as well as
freedom from the bias of expectation in response to treatments.
Neurofeedback for AD/HD: A Ratio
Feedback Case Study and Tutorial
The case study of a 13-year-old AD/HD
male treated with neurofeedback is the subject matter for a tutorial on Ratio feedback.
During the input (reading) condition
absolute levels of F7 beta generator and T5 coherence alpha generator activity were
associated with higher memory scores. Degree of activation (visual attention vs. reading)
values indicated significant relationships (increased activation positively correlated
with recall) between recall and eight generator patterns (coherence) in the alpha range.
Integration with Diet and Detoxification Programs
Victoria L. Ibric, MD, PhD
James E. McCourt, PhD
Introduction. This is a single case-study
of the evaluation and training with neurofeedback of a 51-year-old male presenting
multiple insults: (a) stress-related disorders: high blood pressure (180/105 mmHg,
medicated), arrhythmia, anxiety disorder (Beck-anxiety scale) and overlapping ADD
symptomatology (based on DSM-IV questionnaire for ADD); (b) chronic toxic exposure to
mercury; and (c) Verapamil, the calcium channel blocker, used for over two years
significantly imbalanced the tissue content of calcium and magnesium.
Results and Discussion. Preliminary data
suggest that: (a) biofeedback/ neurofeedback is a positive factor in decreasing reliance
on medications, (b) detoxification is a cofactor in helping rebuild neural networks that
have been affected by chemical and/or trauma insults, and (c) the recovery has a long-term
positive outcome and the peak performance achieved was an added benefit.
Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Children
in the Autistic Spectrum
A Pilot Study
Betty Jarusiewicz, PhD
Background. The efficacy of neurofeedback
training was evaluated in 12 children in the autistic spectrum with matched controls,
based on established training protocols for other conditions with similar symptoms.
Results. Neurofeedback training resulted
in a 26% average reduction in total ATEC rated autism symptoms, compared to 3% for the
control group. Parental assessments reported improvement in all behavioral categories:
socialization, vocalization, anxiety, schoolwork, tantrums, and sleep, compared with
minimal changes in the control group.
Discussion. Autistic spectrum children
who underwent neurofeedback training showed significant improvements in autism symptoms
and behaviors. The magnitude of improvement was independent of initial severity or age.
The effects of stimulant therapy,
EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of
Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S.
FPI Attention Disorders Clinic, 2102 E.
Main Street, Endicott, New York 13760, USA. email@example.com
One hundred children, ages 6-19, who were
diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), either inattentive or
combined types, participated in a study examining the effects of Ritalin, EEG biofeedback,
and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD. All of the patients participated in a
1-year, multimodal, outpatient program that included Ritalin, parent counseling, and
academic support at school (either a 504 Plan or an IEP). Fifty-one of the participants
also received EEG biofeedback therapy. Posttreatment assessments were conducted both with
and without stimulant therapy.
Significant improvement was noted on the
Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; L. M. Greenberg, 1996) and the Attention Deficit
Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES; S. B. McCarney, 1995) when participants were tested
while using Ritalin.
However, only those who had
received EEG biofeedback sustained these gains when tested without Ritalin.
The results of a Quantitative
Electroencephalographic Scanning Process (QEEG-Scan; V. J. Monastra et al., 1999) revealed
significant reduction in cortical slowing only in patients who had received EEG
biofeedback. Behavioral measures indicated that parenting style exerted a significant
moderating effect on the expression of behavioral symptoms at home but not at school.
Om de studie samenvatting te
bekijken klik op het woord [abstract]
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Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder. Daley KC.
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Clinical test for Attention Enhancement
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Alternative treatments for
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EEG biofeedback treatment of ADD. A
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Alternative treatments for adults with
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Neurofeedback combined with training in
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Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Dec;23(4):243-63. [abstract]
Neocortical dynamics: implications for
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Lubar JF. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Jun;22(2):111-26. Review. [abstract]
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Pharmacotherapy and beyond.
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG
neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A.
scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Lubar JF, Swartwood MO, Swartwood JN,
O'Donnell PH. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Mar;20(1):83-99. [abstract]
Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback
results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class. Tansey
Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Mar;18(1):33-44. [abstract]
Discourse on the development of EEG
diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorders. Lubar JF.
Biofeedback Self Regul. 1991 Sep;16(3):201-25. Review. [abstract]
Electroencephalographic biofeedback of
SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Lubar JO,
Lubar JF. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Mar;9(1):1-23. [abstract]
EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the
treatment of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Tansey
MA, Bruner RL. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1983 Mar;8(1):25-37. [abstract]
EEG and behavioral changes in a
hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): a
preliminary report. Lubar JF, Shouse MN. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Sep;1(3):293-306. [abstract]
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disorders. Hammond DC.
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biofeedback with Asperger's syndrome.
Scolnick B. Int J Rehabil Res. 2005 Jun;28(2):159-63. [abstract]
Treatment of chronic fatigue with
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EEG biofeedback as a treatment for
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Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy.
Walker JE, Kozlowski GP.
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Harrison DM, Haut SR.
Epilepsy Behav. 2002 Jun;3(3):214-218. [abstract]
Negative potential shifts and the
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Neurofeedback treatment of pseudoseizure
disorder. Swingle PG.
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Predictive factors for controlling
seizures using a behavioural approach.
Andrews DJ, Schonfeld WH. Seizure. 1992 Jun;1(2):111-6. [abstract]
EEG biofeedback and relaxation training
in the control of epileptic seizures.
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Operant conditioning of epileptic neurons
in monkeys and its theoretical application to EEG operant conditioning in humans. Wyler
Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Jul-Sep;12(3):130-46. [abstract]
Behavioral management of epileptic
seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm. Lubar JF, Bahler
WW. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):77-104. [abstract]
Reduction of epileptic seizures through
EEG biofeedback training.
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Diaz-Comas L, Santiago E, Sanchez L, Bosch J, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Otero G, Ricardo-Garcell
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EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback
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The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback
on verbal, visual-spatial, and creative skills in learning disabled male adolescents.
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The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback
on personality and mood.
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An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective
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Increasing individual upper alpha power
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Stress reactivity and family
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Emerging brain-based interventions for
children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective. Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier
JA. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19, v. Review. [abstract]
Biofeedback treatment for asthma.
Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, Lu SE, Scardella A, Siddique M, Habib RH.
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Clinical application of an EEG-based
brain-computer interface: a case study in a patient with severe motor impairment. Neuper
C, Muller GR, Kubler A, Birbaumer N, Pfurtscheller G. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003
On the pathophysiology of migraine--links
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Neurofeedback in therapy of tinnitus
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Improvement/rehabilitation of memory
functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback.
Thornton K. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2000 Dec;15(6):1285-96. [abstract]
Tinnitus perception and distress is
related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography.
Weisz N, Moratti S, Meinzer M, Dohrmann K, Elbert T. PLoS Med. 2005 Jun;2(6):e153. Epub
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Perceptual responses to infant crying
after EEG biofeedback assisted stress management training: implications for physical child
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Effect of neurofeedback on motor recovery
of a patient with brain injury: a case study and its implications for stroke
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Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: a
single case study.
Rozelle GR, Budzynski TH. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Sep;20(3):211-28. [abstract]
A simple and a complex tic (Gilles de la
Tourette's syndrome): their response to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training.
Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jul;4(2):91-7. [abstract]
A double-blind investigation of the
relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback
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Neurofeedback Literature: More
than 300 papers, starting 1967