neurofeedback therapie

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Neurofeedback is een moderne methode om de hersenen te trainen. Via sensoren op het hoofd kan de trainer activiteiten in de hersenfrequenties waarnemen. Afhankelijk van de klachten is er sprake van onder- of overactiviteit. Bij stress vaak een overactiviteit in de bta frequenties te zien, en bij ADD of ADHD een overactiviteit in de theta frequenties. Door middel van beeld en geluid geeft de trainer feedback aan de hersenen. Dat gebeurt, doordat de muziek die een clint te horen krijgt kort onderbroken wordt. Het brein pakt deze signalen op en gaat hierdoor zlf de overactiviteit verminderen. Daarmee verdwijnt het onnatuurlijke gedrag van de hersenen en de daarmee gepaard gaande klachten. Als de hersenen eenmaal de natuurlijke, gezonde staat ervaren, zullen zij de overactiviteit zelf blijven terugdringen. Het zo natuurlijk mogelijk te laten functioneren van de hersenen heeft legio voordelen: rust, zelfvertrouwen, concentratie, ontspanning, creativiteit en plezier zullen meer en meer voorkomen.

Meer info:

De effectiviteit van Neurofeedback is voor de volgende klachten geindiceerd:

  • Concentratie-,leer-, en gedragsstoornissen (ADD, ADHD)
  • Stress en Burn-out
  • Post Traumatische Stress Stoornis (PTSS)
  • Obsessief-Compulsieve Stoornis
  • Lichte depressie
  • Angsten
  • Bulimia en Anorexia
  • Fibromyalgie
  • Chronische vermoeidheid
  • Slaapstoornissen
  • Migraine
  • Lichte hersenbeschadiging. Er zijn aanwijzingen dat de symptomen van milde hersentrauma's, zoals CVA's,
  • Niet Aangeboren Hersenletsel (NAH) en epilepsie met Neurofeedback verlicht kunnen worden.

Alternatief voor Ritalin - Neurofeedback therapie

While Ritalin has been shown to be effective, it also can cause troubling side effects. In Ben's case, his mother said, he would bend over and run into people head-first. Piszczek, a registered nurse, decided to try an alternative treatment for her son called EEG biofeedback Like Ritalin, biofeedback is not without controversy. Also known as neurotherapy, biofeedback is practiced by psychologists, physicians and others who help change brainwave frequencies with a computer and an electroencephalogram - the same device hospitals use to identify abnormalities in the brain.

After 20 sessions with Wadsworth psychologist Glen Martin, Ben has shown improvement that has stunned his parents and teachers. He pays more attention to his parents and Ins five siblings than ever before.

Autisme en Neurofeedback

Research on EEG Neurofeedback for Autism - Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Autistic Spectrum Disorders

The purpose of this study was to characterize, quantify and document efficacy of neurofeedback for individuals in the Autism spectrum. Neurofeedback, a process of neuro-regulation based on operant conditioning of EEG spectral features, has been proven to assist many with behaviors similar to those seen in the autistic spectrum. This methodology has been used successfully with those exhibiting ADHD behaviors, anxiety, sleep disorders, and addiction.

Preliminary work with individuals in the autistic spectrum has shown promise. The neurofeedback protocol of augmenting specific frequencies in the 4-20 Hz. region, while inhibiting excess amplitude in the lower and higher-frequency regions, challenges the brain toward more optimal functioning in terms of both physiological arousal generally, and emotional regulation specifically.

The study involved a comparison of 16 individuals trained with neurofeedback with 16 individuals who did not receive training, but continued other ongoing therapies. Eighty-eight percent of those trained reduced their levels of autistic symptoms within months, as assessed using the ATEC behavioral checklist of the Autism Research Institute.The average reduction in symptoms severity was 26% compared with a control group average of less than 5%. Before and after videos (Greenspan method) were also used for comparison purposes.

There were significant improvements on average in the areas of speech (30%), socialization (34%), sleep (29%), anxiety (29%), tantrums (29%), and cognitive awareness (16%). When compared with other treatment modalities using the Rimland Treatment Effectiveness Survey, neurofeedback is rated on a par with occupational therapy, and is surpassed to date only by behavior modification and speech therapies, even in this early-stage comparison.

EEG Spectrum

Neurofeedback is a technique in which we train the brain to help improve its ability to regulate all bodily functions and to take care of itself. When the brain is not functioning well, evidence of this often shows up in the EEG (Electroencephalogram). By challenging the brain, much as you challenge your body in physical exercise, we can help your brain learn to function better.

A better functioning brain can improve sleep patterns. When you sleep more efficiently, you are more alert during the day. It can help with anxiety and depression, and with syndromes like migraine or chronic pain. Secondly, it can be helpful in managing attention - how well you can persist even at a boring task. Thirdly, it can help you manage the emotions. Emotions may feel like the real you, but your brain has a lot to say about how you feel and react. If the emotions are out of control, that's trainable. If they aren't there---as in lack of empathy, for example---that, too, is trainable.

Finally, there are some specific issues where the EEG neurofeedback training can be helpful, such as in cases of seizures, traumatic brain injury, stroke, and autism. In these instances the training does not so much get rid of the problem as it simply organizes the brain to function better in the context of whatever injury or loss exists.


The Use of EEG Biofeedback to Treat ADHD

The results of this study supported previous findings that EEG biofeedback can be used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. In this study, five out of six subjects clearly benefited from treatment. Othmer (1994) said that 20 EEG biofeedback sessions can successfully treat approximately 30% of subjects with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders, but the current study resulted in positive gains for at least 80% of the subjects.

Depressie bij alcoholisten

Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms.

Saxby E, Peniston EG.

Biofeedback Center, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA.

This was an experimental study of 14 alcoholic outpatients using the Peniston and Kulkosky (1989, 1991) brainwave treatment protocol for alcohol abuse. After temperature biofeedback pretraining, experimental subjects completed 20 40-minute sessions of alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training (BWNT). Experimentally treated alcoholics with depressive syndrome showed sharp reductions in self-assessed depression (Beck's Depression Inventory). On the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-I, the experimental subjects showed significant decreases on the BR scores: schizoid, avoidant, dependent, histrionic, passive-aggression, schizotypal, borderline, anxiety, somatoform, hypomanic, dysthmic, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, psychotic thinking, and psychotic depression. Twenty-one-month follow-up data indicated sustained prevention of relapse in alcoholics who completed BWNT.

PMID: 8801245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

EEG NeuroBioFeedback Treatment of Patients with Brain Injury

Rima E. Laibow, MD, Albert N. Stubblebine, MSc, Henry Sandground, Michel Bounias, DSc

Twenty-seven patients with brain injury were treated by computer-assisted electroencephalographic NeuroBioFeedback (EEG-NBF). All patients were medication-free during treatment.

Conclusions. NBF in patients with brain injury results in beneficial physiological regulation in addition to initially targeted improvements in brain functions. Symptom associations versus the success or failure of EEG treatment and improvement rates reflected correction of symptoms as well as freedom from the bias of expectation in response to treatments.

Neurofeedback for AD/HD: A Ratio Feedback Case Study and Tutorial

The case study of a 13-year-old AD/HD male treated with neurofeedback is the subject matter for a tutorial on Ratio feedback.

During the input (reading) condition absolute levels of F7 beta generator and T5 coherence alpha generator activity were associated with higher memory scores. Degree of activation (visual attention vs. reading) values indicated significant relationships (increased activation positively correlated with recall) between recall and eight generator patterns (coherence) in the alpha range.

Neurofeedback Training: Integration with Diet and Detoxification Programs

Victoria L. Ibric, MD, PhD
James E. McCourt, PhD

Introduction. This is a single case-study of the evaluation and training with neurofeedback of a 51-year-old male presenting multiple insults: (a) stress-related disorders: high blood pressure (180/105 mmHg, medicated), arrhythmia, anxiety disorder (Beck-anxiety scale) and overlapping ADD symptomatology (based on DSM-IV questionnaire for ADD); (b) chronic toxic exposure to mercury; and (c) Verapamil, the calcium channel blocker, used for over two years significantly imbalanced the tissue content of calcium and magnesium.

Results and Discussion. Preliminary data suggest that: (a) biofeedback/ neurofeedback is a positive factor in decreasing reliance on medications, (b) detoxification is a cofactor in helping rebuild neural networks that have been affected by chemical and/or trauma insults, and (c) the recovery has a long-term positive outcome and the peak performance achieved was an added benefit.

Efficacy of Neurofeedback for Children in the Autistic Spectrum
A Pilot Study

Betty Jarusiewicz, PhD

Background. The efficacy of neurofeedback training was evaluated in 12 children in the autistic spectrum with matched controls, based on established training protocols for other conditions with similar symptoms.

Results. Neurofeedback training resulted in a 26% average reduction in total ATEC rated autism symptoms, compared to 3% for the control group. Parental assessments reported improvement in all behavioral categories: socialization, vocalization, anxiety, schoolwork, tantrums, and sleep, compared with minimal changes in the control group.

Discussion. Autistic spectrum children who underwent neurofeedback training showed significant improvements in autism symptoms and behaviors. The magnitude of improvement was independent of initial severity or age.

The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S.

FPI Attention Disorders Clinic, 2102 E. Main Street, Endicott, New York 13760, USA.

One hundred children, ages 6-19, who were diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), either inattentive or combined types, participated in a study examining the effects of Ritalin, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of ADHD. All of the patients participated in a 1-year, multimodal, outpatient program that included Ritalin, parent counseling, and academic support at school (either a 504 Plan or an IEP). Fifty-one of the participants also received EEG biofeedback therapy. Posttreatment assessments were conducted both with and without stimulant therapy.

Significant improvement was noted on the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; L. M. Greenberg, 1996) and the Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (ADDES; S. B. McCarney, 1995) when participants were tested while using Ritalin.

However, only those who had received EEG biofeedback sustained these gains when tested without Ritalin.

The results of a Quantitative Electroencephalographic Scanning Process (QEEG-Scan; V. J. Monastra et al., 1999) revealed significant reduction in cortical slowing only in patients who had received EEG biofeedback. Behavioral measures indicated that parenting style exerted a significant moderating effect on the expression of behavioral symptoms at home but not at school.

Meer studies

Om de studie samenvatting te bekijken klik op het woord [abstract]

Applicability of brain wave biofeedback to substance use disorder in adolescents. Trudeau DL. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):125-36, vii. Review. [abstract]

Alpha-theta brainwave neurofeedback training: an effective treatment for male and female alcoholics with depressive symptoms.
Saxby E, Peniston EG. J Clin Psychol. 1995 Sep;51(5):685-93. [abstract]

Sociocultural predictors of self-actualization in EEG-biofeedback-treated alcoholics. Twemlow SW, Bowen WT. Psychol Rep. 1977 Apr;40(2):591-8. No abstract available. [abstract]

Monastra VJ, Lynn S, Linden M, Lubar JF, Gruzelier J, LaVaque TJ.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Jun;30(2):95-114. [abstract]

Old and new controversies in the alternative treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Rojas NL, Chan E.
Ment Retard Dev Disabil Res Rev. 2005;11(2):116-30. [abstract]

Neurofeedback in adolescents and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Butnik SM. J Clin Psychol. 2005 May;61(5):621-5. [abstract]

ERPs correlates of EEG relative beta training in ADHD children.
Kropotov JD, Grin-Yatsenko VA, Ponomarev VA, Chutko LS, Yakovenko EA, Nikishena IS. Int J Psychophysiol. 2005 Jan;55(1):23-34. [abstract]

Electroencephalographic biofeedback (neurotherapy) as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: rationale and empirical foundation.
Monastra VJ. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):55-82, vi. Review. [abstract]

The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: part II. Replication. Rossiter T. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Dec;29(4):233-43. [abstract]

ANeurofeedback training with virtual reality for inattention and impulsiveness. Cho BH, Kim S, Shin DI, Lee JH, Lee SM, Kim IY, Kim SI.
Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004 Oct;7(5):519-26. [abstract]

The effectiveness of neurofeedback and stimulant drugs in treating AD/HD: Part I. Review of methodological issues. Rossiter T. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2004 Jun;29(2):95-112. Review. [abstract]

Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Daley KC.
Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004 Apr;16(2):217-26. Review. [abstract]

EEG biofeedback of low beta band components: frequency-specific effects on variables of attention and event-related brain potentials.
Egner T, Gruzelier JH. Clin Neurophysiol. 2004 Jan;115(1):131-9. [abstract]

EEG biofeedback vs. placebo treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study. Heywood C, Beale I. J Atten Disord. 2003 Sep;7(1):43-55. [abstract]

Neurofeedback treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children: a comparison with methylphenidate. Fuchs T, Birbaumer N, Lutzenberger W, Gruzelier JH, Kaiser J. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2003 Mar;28(1):1-12. [abstract]

Clinical test for Attention Enhancement System.
Cho BH, Ku J, Jang D, Lee J, Oh M, Kim H, Lee J, Kim J, Kim I, Kim S.
Stud Health Technol Inform. 2002;85:89-95. [abstract]

The effects of stimulant therapy, EEG biofeedback, and parenting style on the primary symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Monastra VJ, Monastra DM, George S. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Dec;27(4):231-49. [abstract]

Alternative treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: does evidence support their use? Brue AW, Oakland TD.
Altern Ther Health Med. 2002 Jan-Feb;8(1):68-70, 72-4. [abstract]

Learned self-regulation of EEG frequency components affects attention and event-related brain potentials in humans. Egner T, Gruzelier JH.
Neuroreport. 2001 Dec 21;12(18):4155-9. [abstract]

EEG biofeedback treatment of ADD. A viable alternative to traditional medical intervention? Ramirez PM, Desantis D, Opler LA.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:342-58. [abstract]

Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Arnold LE. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 Jun;931:310-41. Review. [abstract]

Neurofeedback combined with training in metacognitive strategies: effectiveness in students with ADD. Thompson L, Thompson M.
Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1998 Dec;23(4):243-63. [abstract]

Neocortical dynamics: implications for understanding the role of neurofeedback and related techniques for the enhancement of attention.
Lubar JF. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 1997 Jun;22(2):111-26. Review. [abstract]

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacotherapy and beyond.
Tan G, Schneider SC. Postgrad Med. 1997 May;101(5):201-4, 213-4, 216 passim. Review. [abstract]

Evaluation of the effectiveness of EEG neurofeedback training for ADHD in a clinical setting as measured by changes in T.O.V.A. scores, behavioral ratings, and WISC-R performance. Lubar JF, Swartwood MO, Swartwood JN, O'Donnell PH. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Mar;20(1):83-99. [abstract]

Ten-year stability of EEG biofeedback results for a hyperactive boy who failed fourth grade perceptually impaired class. Tansey MA.
Biofeedback Self Regul. 1993 Mar;18(1):33-44. [abstract]

Discourse on the development of EEG diagnostics and biofeedback for attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorders. Lubar JF.
Biofeedback Self Regul. 1991 Sep;16(3):201-25. Review. [abstract]

Electroencephalographic biofeedback of SMR and beta for treatment of attention deficit disorders in a clinical setting. Lubar JO, Lubar JF. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Mar;9(1):1-23. [abstract]

EMG and EEG biofeedback training in the treatment of a 10-year-old hyperactive boy with a developmental reading disorder. Tansey MA, Bruner RL. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1983 Mar;8(1):25-37. [abstract]

EEG and behavioral changes in a hyperkinetic child concurrent with training of the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR): a preliminary report. Lubar JF, Shouse MN. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Sep;1(3):293-306. [abstract]

Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Hammond DC.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):105-23, vii. Review. [abstract]

Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger's syndrome.
Scolnick B. Int J Rehabil Res. 2005 Jun;28(2):159-63. [abstract]

Treatment of chronic fatigue with neurofeedback and self-hypnosis.
Hammond DC. NeuroRehabilitation. 2001;16(4):295-300. [abstract]

EEG biofeedback as a treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome: a controlled case report. James LC, Folen RA. Behav Med. 1996 Summer;22(2):77-81. [abstract]

Neurofeedback treatment of epilepsy. Walker JE, Kozlowski GP.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):163-76, viii. Review. [abstract]

Neurofeedback and epilepsy. Monderer RS, Harrison DM, Haut SR.
Epilepsy Behav. 2002 Jun;3(3):214-218. [abstract]

Negative potential shifts and the prediction of the outcome of neurofeedback therapy in epilepsy. Kotchoubey B, Strehl U, Holzapfel S, Blankenhorn V, Froscher W, Birbaumer N. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999 Apr;110(4):683-6. [abstract]

Neurofeedback treatment of pseudoseizure disorder. Swingle PG.
Biol Psychiatry. 1998 Dec 1;44(11):1196-9. [abstract]

Predictive factors for controlling seizures using a behavioural approach.
Andrews DJ, Schonfeld WH. Seizure. 1992 Jun;1(2):111-6. [abstract]

EEG biofeedback and relaxation training in the control of epileptic seizures.
Tozzo CA, Elfner LF, May JG Jr. Int J Psychophysiol. 1988 Aug;6(3):185-94. [abstract]

Operant conditioning of epileptic neurons in monkeys and its theoretical application to EEG operant conditioning in humans. Wyler AR.
Pavlov J Biol Sci. 1977 Jul-Sep;12(3):130-46. [abstract]

Behavioral management of epileptic seizures following EEG biofeedback training of the sensorimotor rhythm. Lubar JF, Bahler WW. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1976 Mar;1(1):77-104. [abstract]

Reduction of epileptic seizures through EEG biofeedback training.
Seifert AR, Lubar JF. Biol Psychol. 1975 Nov;3(3):157-84. [abstract]

Biofeedback in epileptics: equivocal relationship of reinforced EEG frequency to seizure reduction. Kaplan BJ. Epilepsia. 1975 Sep;16(3):477-85. [abstract]

Electroencephalogram biofeedback for reading disability and traumatic brain injury. Thornton KE, Carmody DP. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):137-62, vii. Review. [abstract]

EEG and behavioral changes following neurofeedback treatment in learning disabled children. Fernandez T, Herrera W, Harmony T, Diaz-Comas L, Santiago E, Sanchez L, Bosch J, Fernandez-Bouzas A, Otero G, Ricardo-Garcell J, Barraza C, Aubert E, Galan L, Valdes R.
Clin Electroencephalogr. 2003 Jul;34(3):145-52. [abstract]

A controlled study of the effects of EEG biofeedback on cognition and behavior of children with attention deficit disorder and learning disabilities.
Linden M, Habib T, Radojevic V. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1996 Mar;21(1):35-49. Erratum in: 1996 Sep;21(3):297. [abstract]

EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training: some effects on the neurologic precursors of learning disabilities. Tansey MA.
Int J Psychophysiol. 1984 Feb;1(2):163-77. [abstract]

The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visual-spatial, and creative skills in learning disabled male adolescents. Cunningham MD, Murphy PJ. J Learn Disabil. 1981 Apr;14(4):204-8. No abstract available. [abstract]

The effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on personality and mood.
Raymond J, Varney C, Parkinson LA, Gruzelier JH. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2005 May;23(2-3):287-92. [abstract]

An EEG biofeedback protocol for affective disorders.
Rosenfeld JP. Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):7-12. Review. No abstract available. [abstract]

Increasing individual upper alpha power by neurofeedback improves cognitive performance in human subjects. Hanslmayr S, Sauseng P, Doppelmayr M, Schabus M, Klimesch W. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Mar;30(1):1-10. [abstract]

Stress reactivity and family relationships in the development and treatment of endometriosis. Harrison V, Rowan K, Mathias J. Fertil Steril. 2005 Apr;83(4):857-64. Review. [abstract]

Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective. Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19, v. Review. [abstract]

Biofeedback treatment for asthma.
Lehrer PM, Vaschillo E, Vaschillo B, Lu SE, Scardella A, Siddique M, Habib RH.
Chest. 2004 Aug;126(2):352-61. [abstract]

Clinical application of an EEG-based brain-computer interface: a case study in a patient with severe motor impairment. Neuper C, Muller GR, Kubler A, Birbaumer N, Pfurtscheller G. Clin Neurophysiol. 2003 Mar;114(3):399-409. [abstract]

On the pathophysiology of migraine--links for "empirically based treatment" with neurofeedback. Kropp P, Siniatchkin M, Gerber WD. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2002 Sep;27(3):203-13. Review. [abstract]

Neurofeedback in therapy of tinnitus
Gosepath K, Nafe B, Ziegler E, Mann WJ. HNO. 2001 Jan;49(1):29-35. German. [abstract]

Improvement/rehabilitation of memory functioning with neurotherapy/QEEG biofeedback.
Thornton K. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2000 Dec;15(6):1285-96. [abstract]

Tinnitus perception and distress is related to abnormal spontaneous brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography. Weisz N, Moratti S, Meinzer M, Dohrmann K, Elbert T. PLoS Med. 2005 Jun;2(6):e153. Epub 2005 Jun 28. [abstract]

Perceptual responses to infant crying after EEG biofeedback assisted stress management training: implications for physical child abuse. Tyson PD, Sobschak KB. Child Abuse Negl. 1994 Nov;18(11):933-43. [abstract]

Effect of neurofeedback on motor recovery of a patient with brain injury: a case study and its implications for stroke rehabilitation. Wing K. Top Stroke Rehabil. 2001 Autumn;8(3):45-53. [abstract]

Neurotherapy for stroke rehabilitation: a single case study.
Rozelle GR, Budzynski TH. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1995 Sep;20(3):211-28. [abstract]

A simple and a complex tic (Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome): their response to EEG sensorimotor rhythm biofeedback training. Tansey MA.
Int J Psychophysiol. 1986 Jul;4(2):91-7. [abstract]

A double-blind investigation of the relationship between seizure activity and the sleep EEG following EEG biofeedback training. Whitsett SF, Lubar JF, Holder GS, Pamplin WE, Shabsin HS. Biofeedback Self Regul. 1982 Jun;7(2):193-209. [abstract]

Neurofeedback Literature: More than 300 papers, starting 1967





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