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Alcohol serial killer


Alcohol in de EU: de 'serial killer' wordt ontmaskerd.

De cijfers in het rapport L'alcool en Europe, une approche en sante publique' van Dr. Peter Anderson (L'Institute of Alcohol in Londen) zijn afschrikwekkend.

Europa is wereldkampioen als we het hebben over de consumptie van alcohol. Zo'n 23 miljoen personen zijn alcoholafhankelijk. Meer dan 1 op de 6 jongeren waren meer dan 3x dronken de afgelopen maand. Deze overconsumptie vertegenwoordigt 7,4 % van vroegtijdig overlijden. De 3e doodsoorzaak in de EU. Een rapport roept op om efficiŽnte maatregelen te nemen…..De Europese Commissie tracht een gemeenschappelijk strategie te vinden om de consumptie van alcohol op het continent te beperken en de faktuur voor de maatschappij te verminderen.

Waarom ?  De kosten van deze catastrofe zijn 125 miljard euro per jaar, 650 euro per gezin.

Alcohol en tabak: de 2 grote 'serial killers'.

De ontmaskering van alcohol als serieuze doder is vrij recent. Men interesseerde zich niet echt voor de consequenties van gebruik van alcohol en autorijden. Nu begint men zich bewust te worden van de schaden die dit veroorzaakt. Alles heeft tijd nodig, net zoveel tijd als nodig was om te begrijpen dat tabak ook een serieuze doder was. De studie van Doll die de relatie tussen longkanker en tabak aantoonde is van 50 jaar geleden. Dus zo'n 40 jaar hebben we moeten wachten tot er anti-tabakmaatregelen werden genomen.

Laten we hopen dat deze periode minder lang is om anti-alcohol maatregelen te nemen. De twijfel is er; het heeft al meer dan 10 jaar geduurd voordat zwangere vrouwen gewaarschuwd werden dat gebruik van alcohol tijdens de zwangerschap slecht is voor hun toekomstig kind. Meer dynamisme wordt verwacht van bedrijven: directeuren van personeelszaken zijn steeds meer op zoek naar oplossingen, omdat het overbodig alcoholgebruik een sociaal en een produktief risico inhoudt voor het bedrijf.

Om een idee te krijgen van de weg die nog bewandeld moet worden het volgende: in Amerika ligt de consumptie van alcohol per inwoner meer dan 2x lager en het percentage van dood door kanker is ook veel lager. In Europa drinken mannen net zoveel als vrouwen, 1 glas per dag…… en 1 glas per dag is de ideale dosis om van alcohol te genieten zonder nadelige consequenties eraan over te houden. Dus….de hoeveelheid per persoon zal herzien dienen te worden en we kunnen toekomstige berichten verwachten vanuit de hoek van de Volksgezondheid die deze boodschap gaan brengen.

Bron: www.e-sante.fr
14/08/2006
Dr Philippe Presles

Confťrence de presse "Alcool, enjeux et politiques en Europe ?
Quelles rťponses efficaces face au risque alcool ?",
21 juin 2006 - Paris.

Vertaalde samenvatting door xxx


Eerste bewijs voor relatie tussen alcohol en kanker

Wat niemand tot nu toe was gelukt is de Dr. Jian-Wei Gu van de University of Mississippi Medical Center bij toeval gelukt, een bewijs vinden van de relatie tussen alcohol en tumorgroei. Deze onderzoeker was eigenlijk bezig met onderzoek naar de groei van bloedvaten ivm hart- en vaatziekten. Bij toeval ontdekte hij een relatie tussen tumorgroei en lage dosis alcohol. Eerdere onderzoekers hadden deze relatie niet gevonden omdat men de proefdieren te hoge dosis alcohol (20%) had gegeven. Dr. Jian-Wei Gu gebruikte echter 1% wat overeen komt met 1-2 drankjes.

http://info.umc.edu/news/?n=mcnews&id=3127


Download het volledige EU rapport over alcohol

Het Europese rapport over de kosten en risico's van alcohol kun je
nu downloaden:

http://ec.europa.eu/health-eu/doc/alcoholineu_sum_nl_en.pdf

Een stukje uit het rapport:

Los van het feit dat alcohol een verslavende stof is, is alcohol ook de oorzaak van 60 verschillende soorten ziektes en aandoeningen, zoals verwondingen, geestelijke stoornissen, gedragsafwijkingen, maag- darmaandoeningen, verschillende vormen van kanker, cardiovasculaire ziektes, immunologische afwijkingen, longziektes, bot- en spierziektes, afwijkingen in de voortplanting en prenatale schade zoals een groter risico op vroeggeboorte en laag geboortegewicht. Voor de meeste aandoeningen geldt dat het risico toeneemt naarmate men meer alcohol drinkt. Voor sommige aandoeningen, zoals cardiomyopathie, ernstige acute ademhalingsproblemen en spierbeschadigingen lijkt de schade alleen veroorzaakt te worden door een langdurig hoog niveau van alcohol consumptie. Maar zelfs bij een hoog consumptieniveau verhoogt alcohol
het risico en de ernst van deze aandoeningen op een dosis-gerelateerde manier. De frequentie en de omvang van periodiek zwaar drinken spelen een grote rol bij de toename van het risico op aandoeningen en bepaalde cardiovasculaire ziektes (hartinfarct en beroerte).


Tobacco and alcohol use independently increase risk of head and neck cancer

cigarette smoking is more strongly associated with head and neck cancers than drinking alcohol, according to a study in the May 16 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. The study found that smoking is responsible for a quarter of head and neck cancers among individuals who do not drink alcohol.

http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/10/777


Alcohol use during pregnancy leads to greater risk of extreme preterm delivery

Preterm delivery, and particularly "extreme prematurity" -- defined as less than 32 weeks of gestation -- are major contributors to perinatal sickness and death worldwide. A new study has found that maternal alcohol use during pregnancy can contribute to a substantial increase in risk for extreme preterm delivery.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-05/ace-aud051707.php


Moderate drinking lowers women's risk of heart attack

Women who regularly enjoy an alcoholic drink or two have a significantly lower risk of having a non-fatal heart attack than women who are life-time abstainers, epidemiologists at the University at Buffalo have shown.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-05/uab-mdl052307.php


Acetaldehyde 30x more toxic than alcohol

In the 1980s Dr. Victor R. Preedy of King's College in London reported that acetaldehyde, a powerful poison that damages muscle tissue even more than it does the liver or brain, is approximately 30 times more toxic than alcohol itself.

http://www.cheerzhangover.com/acetaldehyde.htm


Drinking heavily in college may lead to heart disease later in life

College-age students who drink heavily may increase their risk for future heart disease, researchers reported at the American Heart Association's 8th annual Conference on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology.

http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3047060


Choline shows promise in reducing behavioral effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure

Giving choline to infants who were exposed in the womb to alcohol may mitigate some of the resulting problems. Prenatal alcohol exposure affects physical and central nervous system development, putting children at risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that at their worst include full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome. These disorders can mean a lifetime of potentially serious problems with learning, attention, motor skills and social behavior. The findings appear in the February issue of Behavioral Neuroscience, which is published by the American Psychological Association (APA).

At San Diego State University, research led by Jennifer Thomas, PhD, is using an animal model to assess the potential therapeutic value of choline. Because scientists have been unable to determine a safe threshold for alcohol consumption during human pregnancy, abstention is the only sure means of prevention. However, warnings about the dangers of drinking during pregnancy either don’t reach or aren’t heeded by all pregnant women. As a result, researchers are seeking effective remedies to give after birth, when health professionals may be better able to intervene.

Choline plays a number of roles in brain development. It is also a precursor to acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in learning and cognition, among other functions. Choline is available in many foods, such as eggs and liver, and sold over the counter in well-tolerated forms such as lecithin, choline bitartrate or chloride, and phosphatidylcholine. Due to choline’s beneficial effects on nervous-system development, women are advised to consume 450 mg a day while pregnant and 550 mg a day while breast feeding (the tolerable upper limit has been set at 3.5 g per day). For infants, 125-150 mg/day is considered adequate during the first year, rising as the child grows older. Choline is added to some prenatal vitamins and baby formulas, and is now added to some children’s multivitamins and cereals.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-02/apa-csp022607.php


Genetic link to heavy substance abuse in teenagers

A team led by School of Medicine researchers has made important new discoveries about teenagers’ use of addictive substances.

The team found that family and community experiences play an important role in whether teenagers experiment with alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana, but genetic influences become more important for progression to heavy substance use.

Researchers questioned more than 1,200 pairs of identical and non-identical twins aged 11-19 in Wales and Manchester about their use of these substances.

The study, published in Addiction, the journal of the Society for the Study of Addiction, found 86 per cent of youngsters had drunk alcohol at some point in their lives. Of these, one third reported binge drinking, drunkenness, or getting into situations they later regretted because of alcohol. Cigarettes had been tried by 58 per cent, with 24 per cent reporting heavy use. Just 22 per cent reported trying marijuana and of these, 62 per cent had used it fewer than six times in their life.

There was a strong link between starting to smoke tobacco or marijuana and going on to heavy use. There was a weaker link for alcohol, suggesting that many teenagers may experiment with drink without developing a problem.

http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/newsevents/23596.html


Stress and alcohol cues appear to target the brain differently to produce craving

Both stress and "alcohol cues" (reminders of drinking) can produce craving and possibly relapse in alcoholics trying to avoid drinking. New findings indicate that stress and alcohol cues work on the brain differently to produce craving. Results suggest that independently addressing the effects of stress and alcohol cues on craving may improve an alcoholic's chances of remaining sober.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-02/ace-saa021507.php


Binge-drinking teenagers are damaging their brains

Teenagers who drink heavily are risking permanent damage to their brain functions, scientists warned last night. Alcohol has been shown to cause significant ongoing memory loss in youngsters which could extend into adulthood.

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/pages/live/articles/health/dietfitness.html?in_article_
id=444154&in_page_id=1774&in_a_source=&ito=1490


Scientist Finds First Evidence Of Alcohol-Cancer Link

Dr. Jian-Wei Gu came to Mississippi to study the cardiovascular system with a special interest in the process of blood vessel growth. So how does a cardiovascular physiologist attract national headlines about his research in cancer? According to Gu, assistant professor of physiology and biophysics at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, it was completely by accident.

Reports of Gu’s research have appeared in USA Today, Science News, the New Scientist and on CBS News. It was big news because Gu has done what many scientists before him have failed to do: describe the mechanism by which alcohol consumption causes tumor growth.

“Scientists have known for a hundred years that there was a strong association between alcohol consumption and several types of cancer,” Gu said. He cites a study from Paris in 1910 that showed that 80 percent of patients with cancer of the esophagus or gastric track were alcoholics.

More recently, epidemiological studies show a strong correlation between alcohol consumption and cancer of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, and large bowel. Alcohol consumption seems to be a risk factor even for breast cancer. But experiments in the lab have failed - until now - to show the effects in animals that observers knew to be true in humans.

The problem, it turns out, was that investigators were using too much alcohol.

“Most all the previous studies used alcohol concentrations of 20 percent, far more than the equivalent human consumption,” Gu said. The animals wasted away but they didn’t show abnormal tumor growth, he said.

Gu used alcohol concentrations of one percent, about the equivalent of one or two drinks a day in humans, or moderate alcohol consumption. Using what he terms “physiologically relevant” levels of alcohol, he stimulated tumor growth in both chick embryos and in mice.

Gu came to Mississippi in 1995 to work on angiogenesis, or blood vessel growth, and what stimulates or controls it. Seven years ago, working in the lab, he and his colleagues noticed that the growth factor that stimulates vessel growth (vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF) increased “unexpectedly” in certain cell cultures.

They determined that it was the alcohol they used as a solvent, in very low concentrations, that caused the increase in the growth factor.

That serendipitous finding by Gu in 2000 led to the study in chick embryos and, most recently, to a study showing that melanoma cancers in mice grew significantly faster and larger in the mice who consumed the equivalent of one or two alcoholic drinks a day than the mice that received no alcohol.

The mice used in the most recent study were given drinking water that had an alcohol concentration of one percent for 12 hours. The next 12 hours, they received water with no alcohol. Another group of mice received no alcohol in their water.

After a week, Gu and his colleagues inoculated all the animals with mouse melanoma cells. Three weeks later, the tumors were removed to be analyzed. All the mice had tumors, but the mice given alcohol had tumors that had progressed much more rapidly than the mice that had no alcohol. The larger tumors also had more blood vessel growth.

Dr. Thomas Adair, professor of physiology and biophysics and Gu’s mentor when he came to Mississippi, said that Gu’s findings have been confirmed by other scientists.

“When he presented his findings at a FASEB (Federated Societies for Experimental Biology) meeting, someone from a group in San Diego came up to me afterward and told me they had found the same thing in their lab and didn’t know what to make of it. They went back and did a study on rats and found the same thing.”

Angiogenesis is an area of keen interest for its application to cancer therapy. Right now, Adair estimates there may be as many as 40 drugs that act by controlling angiogenesis in clinical trials.

But angiogenesis isn’t necessarily pathological, according to Adair. Stimulating angiogenesis would be helpful in repairing heart tissue damaged by a heart attack or in wound healing.

Gu’s research is funded by the National Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Institute of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute of NIH and the American Cancer Society.

http://info.umc.edu/news/?n=mcnews&id=3127


Females more prone to brain damage from alcohol abuse

Alcoholism has traditionally been considered a male disease because there are many more alcoholic males than females. But a study by researchers at Oregon Health & Science University and the Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center suggests that women are more prone to brain damage from alcohol abuse than men. The study found that female mice are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of alcohol withdrawal, including significantly increased brain cell death, than male mice.

http://www.ohsu.edu/ohsuedu/newspub/071807alcohol.cfm


Prenatal alcohol exposure alters brain activity in the frontal-striatal areas

Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure does not always lead to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); sometimes it can lead to cognitive and behavioral deficits in the absence of craniofacial features needed to make an FAS diagnosis. A new study has found that children and adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol have altered responses in frontal-striatal areas, brain regions that may inhibit behavior.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-07/ace-pae071607.php


Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at risk for alcohol problems

Prior research has shown that children with ADHD can develop alcohol problems later in life. Two studies confirm this association, indicating that drinking problems begin around age 15. Parental alcoholism and family stress appear to add to the risk of children with ADHD developing alcohol problems themselves.

http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00340.x


Sequence variation in the alpha synuclein gene contributes to alcohol craving

The protein alpha synuclein (SNCA) plays an important role in the regulation of dopamine function. Craving is a common symptom in alcoholics. New findings show that sequence variation in the gene that encodes SNCA contributes to whether or not an individual craves or does not crave alcohol.

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-03/ace-svi031907.php


Drinking heavy amounts of alcohol shrinks your brain

Drinking heavy amounts of alcohol over a long period of time may decrease brain volume, according to research that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 59th Annual Meeting in Boston

http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2007-05/aaon-dha041007.php


Increased alcohol intake associated with decreased risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis

New data presented today at EULAR 2007 suggest that alcohol may protect against rheumatoid arthritis, with three units a week exhibiting protective effects and ten units a week being more protective still. An alcohol consumption of three units per week or more also reduced the risk by smoking or by a genetic predisposition to RA.

http://www.eular.org/congresspressreleases/OPO129_-_press_release_Kallberg_-_ethanol_-_FINAL.pdf


Research offers hope for alcoholics

Australian scientists have found a system in the brain that stops the craving for alcohol and prevents relapse after one recovers from the addiction.

http://www.hfi.unimelb.edu.au/content/news/hm_news01_curn.html


New Evidence On Why Alcohol Consumption Is A Risk Factor For Cancer

Now researchers in Japan have discovered direct molecular evidence supporting that link between acetaldehyde and alcohol-related cancers. In a report published in the current (October) issue of the monthly ACS journal Chemical Research in Toxicology, Tomonari Matsuda and colleagues studied DNA from the blood of 44 patients being treated for alcoholism.

http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/crtoec/
2006/19/i10/abs/tx060113h.html


Long-term effects of alcohol abuse during adolescence

There is mounting evidence that repeated exposure to alcohol during adolescence leads to long-lasting deficits in cognitive abilities, including learning and memory, in humans. Much of this work has been pioneered by Drs. Susan Tapert and Sandra Brown, alcohol researchers at the University of California , San Diego (UCSD). Drs. Tapert and Brown have conducted a series of studies examining the impact of alcohol abuse on neuropsychological functioning in adolescents and young adults. In one such study (Brown et al., 2000), adolescents in an in-patient substance abuse treatment program, at least three weeks sober, were compared to controls from the community on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Ages ranged from 15-16. Frequent drinkers (100 or more total drinking sessions), particularly those that had experienced alcohol withdrawal, performed more poorly than controls on several tests, including tests of learning, memory, and visuospatial functioning.

http://www.duke.edu/~amwhite/Adolescence/adolescent6.html


Alcohol + zwangerschap = sloper van je baby

Volgens de Australische profesor Elizabeth Elliott kan alchohol bij een jonge vrouw die zwanger is leiden tot het Foetaal alcohol syndroom waarbij de baby schade aan hersenen, hart en nieren kan oplopen. Verder kan het op school leiden tot leer- en gedragsproblemen en voor afwijkingen in het gezicht zorgen.

Een avondje flink doorzakken met veel alcohol in de laatste fase van de zwangerschap is al genoeg: de baby kan het Foetaal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) ontwikkelen.

Laat je baby dus niet de dupe worden van alcohol....

http://www.medfac.usyd.edu.au/news/features/2006/061110a.php

Meer informatie over dit syndroom

http://www.fasstichting.nl/

http://www.erfelijkheid.nl/zena/foeta.php
http://www.czmedicinfo.nl/%7Bf1232b3a-09d0-4f41-a1
http://www.e-gezondheid.be/nl/ZwangerschapAlcohol-10567-541-art.htm
http://www.mobiel-pleegzorg.nl/archief/2003/mo03505.htm
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/3651050.stm

Een filmpje over deze aandoening

http://www.modemmedia-awards.com/fas.html



Eťn avond drinken is voldoende om hersenbeschadiging te veroorzaken

Deze studie onderzocht een van de meerdere mechanismen die door alcohol beschadigt in hersenen die nog in ontwikkeling zijn. De schrijvers vonden vooral dat door het blokkeren van de NMDA receptoren and over-activeren van de GABA receptoren, ethanol een kettingreactie veroorzaakt van het afsterven van cellen (apoptosis) in de ontwikkelende hersenen van de rat. De kwetsbare periode was tijdens de synaptogenesis, dit is de periode dat de hersencellen verbindingen vormen. Deze periode vindt bij mensen plaats tussen de 6 maanden in de zwangerschap tot verscheidene jaren na de geboorte. Kortdurende blootstellingen aan ethanol in deze periode dood miljoenen hersencellen. Er werd gevonden dat de veroorzaker van het afsterven van cellen gerelateerd was aan de hoeveelheid alcohol in het bloed. Zo zal een percentage van 200 mg/dl gehandhaafd over 4 uur het afsterven van neuronen veroorzaken, en langere blootstelling op dit niveau zal leiden tot nog ernstigere beschadigingen.

Ethanol-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration and fetal alcohol syndrome. (Engels).
Ikonomidou et al. Science 287, p 1056-1060 (2000).

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=
pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10669420


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